(Zang, Development of a sampling plan which outlines what

(Zang, 2007)

Figure 1: Criteria for a sampling plan

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of a sampling plan which outlines what samples to take, when, where and
how many samples are to be collected, how often samples are to be
collected and by whom
the samples are to be collected: approved methods and equipment
of the samples, prior to analysis, to not introduce further error through
sample degradation.
of samples and designated personnel

minimize the risk of errors in sampling literature suggests that the following
steps should be carried out:

sampling and analysis of collected data can result also in wrong conclusions
being obtained due to error and bias being introduced into the experiment. Some
critical; elements of a samples representativeness may include the physical
dimensions of the sample, location and timing of collection.

representativeness looks at how well the overall data collection design matches
the environmental condition at the site. It looks at the sampling and analysis design.
Sampling point looks at how ell a sample collected represents the
characteristics of the sampling point and collected sample representativeness
is a measure of how subsampling techniques are during analysis and the use of
proper preparation and analytical procedures. (Zang,

point representativeness
sample representativeness

can then be defined in 3 different levels.

nearly impossible, or highly impracticable to sample everything, as the environment
around us is vast. Thus, representative portions of the interested area must be
obtained to make a statistically sound and correct judgement of the larger vast
area. Representativeness should be the focal point of the design process. (Zang, 2007). The US EPA defines representativeness
as the degree to which data accurately and precisely represents the characteristics
of the population.  (Environmental Protection Agency, 2008)

Why is sampling and representativeness


Research purposes:
Characterizing some pollutant level in environmental media to obtain information
about fate and transport mechanisms
Monitoring purposes for
legislative or regulatory purposes, development of environmental
databases, trending purposes as well as prevention of accidental releases
of some pollutant which can cause harm to human health and environment.

Sampling is usually
done for several reasons

Why do we need to sample?


Sampling is a
process where a smaller number of observations are taken from a larger population
with the aim of obtaining statistically valid information (through hypotheses
generated by the researcher) of the larger population. Thus, to be an accurate
hypothesis, the sample taken should be representative of the entire larger population.
To be representative, the sample must be random and encompass the parts of the whole
population. Several sampling strategies can be employed to obtain
representative samples, which will be discussed later. Environmental sampling
is simply taking samples from the environment (air, soil, water)

What is sampling?



Date: Monday 15th January 2018

Dr.Derrick Ballaadin




Ø  Personal
Protective Equipment {PPE}

Ø  Computation
of sample size

Ø  Systematic

Ø  Simple
and stratified Random sampling

Ø  Representative

Sampling Approach:



Individual Assignment 1


Cohort 10



Clara Dassyne


of Science in Environmental Management


of Trinidad and Tobago


7003: Environmental Monitoring