When managing an
implementing change, various people will be affected by the process. Some people
will also have an influence and their part to play in the realisation of the
project. Having the support of all stakeholders is key and knowing who they are
before starting the project is vital. It is important to identify stakeholders
but even more to consider their interest and power levels regarding the project
The Stakeholder Power
and Interest Mapping (Bryson, 2004) tells us there are four types of
power/high interest – these are the most important stakeholders. They should
be kept informed and close to the project as much as possible.
power/low interest – since their power over the project is high and can
influence its progress, these stakeholders need to be kept satisfied.
However, having a low interest means that their influence is likely to be
kept to a minimum
power/high interest these stakeholders can offer support in the project
which means they should be kept informed of the progress.
power/low interest – these stakeholders are easily monitored since they
cannot influence your project and are unlikely to be involved.
This tool is extremely
useful to focus on the right people with the correct amount of energy ad time.
Communication is important for all stakeholders as it will maintain their
engagement throughout the process of change. However, it is also necessary to
be strategic and know who is more likely to support and positively influence
the project so that we spend the appropriate amount of effort with the relevant
Making informative decisions is vital in
succeeding at a task. Gathering information from the relevant people will make
a change plan run more smoothly. This is what the Stakeholder Salience model
(Mitchell, 1997) sets to help doing.
This model consider
three parameters: power, legitimacy and urgency. By defining their power (i.e
how muh influence they have over decisions), how much authority and involvement
they have and finally the time constraints they might impose, the most
important stakeholder will naturally appear.
If this model only highlight the stakeholder to look
out for, organisation following this model will still need to consider other
stakeholders. It is recommended to monitor ‘dominant’ stakeholders, those who
have a high power and legitimacy vut low urgency over the project.