When Nicolaus Copernicus
came along, that was the first time that the Ptolemaic system was seriously
challenged. “In any case, in De
Revolutionibus, Copernicus did argue successfully that, rather than the sun
revolving around the earth (the geocentric
theory), the earth revolved around the sun (the heliocentric theory)” (Hergenhahn & Henley 100). Copernicus’s
argument was later on then seen as going against the church, he was willing to
present his work despite what the outcome maybe. After Copernicus was Giordano Bruno,
“Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) was a former Dominican priest who developed an
interest in the ancient philosophy of Hermetism” (Hergenhahn & Henley 100).
He died for finding an interest in the theories that Copernicus had presented. He
not only died for believing in Copernicus theories but also because he believed
that it had restored what the ancient gods had believed in. After Copernicus’s
theories it took a while for someone else to challenge what he presented, and
the next person to do so was Johannes Kepler first started out wanting to become
a Lutheran minister, but was unable to stick with their doctrine, therefore, switching
over to astronomy and math. Kepler was a combination of both Copernicus and Bruno.
“… like Copernicus, was a Platonist seeking the simple mathematical harmony
that describes the universe. Second, like Bruno, Kepler saw the sun as a
mystical force and, as such, he was attracted to the greater dignity given to
the sun in the Copernican system” (Hergenhahn & Henley 102). Kepler also
contributed to the theories of vision, he believed that vision was the
projection of exact copies of objects or images into the sensory receptors, but
he also questioned the positons of images reflecting into the retinas.
The last person
was Galileo, “Galileo viewed the universe as a perfect machine whose workings
could be understood only in mathematical terms…” (Hergenhahn & Henley 102).
Galileo was the creator of the telescope he wanted to see the moons and the
stars and that’s what he did, although at that time he was not liked for it
because it want against the churches doctrine. Copernicus, Bruno, Kepler, and
Galileo all are important to today’s society because they all contributed to
what we know as the visuals of the moon and the stars. Without their wondering
we may have never know what gave us light and what was happening outside of the
earth. Galileo especially helped us because creating the telescope helped us to
discover what was on the outside of the planet that we lived on. Although,
these things are interesting to us it was a sin in the Church world at that
time they felt it went against what they had known and it was made up heresies.
Hergenhahn, B. R., and Tracy B. Henley. An
introduction to the history of psychology.
Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2014.