WHAT IS SOUND:
Sound is a type of energy which is produced when objects vibrate through any medium by transferring energy. As when an object vibrates the vibrations causes the air particles surrounding it to move. As the particles move they bump and collide transferring energy to other particles around them and so on making them vibrate too until they run out of energy. All vibrations travelling through air is called sound waves. Sound can’t travel in a vacuum like space as the there is no particles to act as a medium.
The most common way a sound is produced on a violin is when a violinist draws their bow across the violin. As the violin draws their bow due to the friction of the horsehair and rosin the strings it causes the strings to vibrate and travel to the bridge. This leads to the front of the violin to vibrate coming in contact with the soundpost. The soundpost, I aa wooden dowel wedged into place between the front and the back of the violin provides support for the pressure and helps transmit treble notes by transmitting vibrations form the top plate to the bottom plate, while the bass bar running along transmits the bass notes to the front plate allowing to amplify lower frequency notes. As all the vibrations run through the violin they are churned together and released as sound through the f-holes.
An ultrasound is most commonly used in the medical sides of things for fetal imaging which is checking the condition of the baby and its gender, or for diagnosing condition which affect organs (your kidneys) and tissues and helps measure the speed of blood flow in your body. But can also be used in the industrial side of things and is referred to as ultrasonic. They are used for inspecting and testing materials and determining the quality of it as the high frequency sound waves will show the thickness without damage the materials. In reactors and in plane parts they are used to inspect to avoid potentially dangerous situations.
How ultrasounds work is by transmitting high-frequency sound pulses into the body and are eventually reflected back which are picked up by the machine.
Sonar or unabbreviated is Sound Navigation and Ranging and is used in a wide range of uses like mapping the sea floors, locating underwater hazards, communication and detecting shipwrecks and submarines. It is used instead of light waves and radar as sound waves are known to travel further in water. There are two types of Sonars, which are called active and passive.
Active sonars emit a sound pulse into the water or other wise known as pings. If an object is found to be in the path of the sound the pulse bounces back as an echo to the sonar transducer which sent the pulse. The transducer measures the strength of the echo and by determining the time between the sending and receiving of the pulse can determine the range and orientation of the object.
In a passive sonar they are used to detect noises and sounds from marine objects such as submarines, whales and ships. Different from an active sonar they do not emit its own signal, which is perfect for secret vessels which don’t want to detect It only detects waves coming to it and individually cannot measure the range of an object unless used with other devices.
– Speed of sound
The speed of sound is a term used for the distance sound travels as it passes through an elastic medium. The speed of sound is dependent on the type of gas and the temperature of the gas as the colder it is the gas molecules in the medium are slower leading to the overall speed slower. But in a hotter temperature of gas the molecules have more energy and are faster making the speed of sound faster. At around 20 degrees the speed of light is around 343 m per second.
– Sonic Boom
A sonic boom is a common name given to a loud explosion-like sound which is produced when an object travels though the air faster than the speed of sound. They are created when there are huge amounts of sound energy.
This happens due to while an object travels through air it creates a series of pressure waves from in front of it and from behind, similar to the waves created by a boat’s stern and bow. As the waves travel at the speed of sound and the objects speed increases it causes the waves to be forced together as the cannot get away from each other. Leading to a single shock wave due to the pressure.
LIQUIDS VS GASES
Due to sound being a vibration of kinetic energy which is passes from one molecule to another by hitting the tighter the molecular bonds are the quicker sound travels, thus making it easier for soundwaves to travel faster in solids than in liquids and gases.
The velocity of sound waves is affected by two properties of matter elastic property and the density. The speed of sound is also different to different types of liquids and gases, with one of the reasons being that the elastic properties are different. The elastic properties relate to the tendency of a material to maintain its shape and not deform when force is applied to it. A material like steel (rigid material) will have less of a deformation while a marshmallow will deform easily as it is flexible. Materials which are rigid, have strong forces and their particles return to their position quickly allowing it to vibrate in higher speeds so those with higher elastic properties allow sound to travel faster. Another factor is density as denser substances have larger molecules which have more mass transmitting sound slower. As sound waves are made up of kinetic energy it takes more energy to vibrate larger particles. But if the objects elastic property outweighs the density it will travel fast, in vice versa.
SPEED OF LIGHT
The speed of light is a term used to say how fast light travels in a vacuum, which has been measured in great accuracy. It travels around 282 miles per second or in kms 299,792 kilometers per second and is the speed in which all the waves in the electromagnetic spectrum travel. Eg, visible light and infrared
– Light year (ly)
As most of the objects in space are extremely far away using a small unit of distance to calculate the distance would be very impractical and useless, so many astronomers use light-years instead to calculate the distance. An example of using this is calculating the distance of Andromeda the nearest largest galaxy which is 2.3 million light-years away.