War is a
common thing on the African continent. Conflicts have occurred in Africa such
as religious conflicts, civil wars, ethnic conflicts, opposition-government
conflicts, and other domestic wars. As a result of the war, the African region
is very vulnerable to experience the instability of the region and eventually
cause a prolonged impact such as the emergence of a prolonged crisis both in
economic, social, and political (www.journal.unair.ac.id).
One of the countries in the African
continent that is in conflict is the CAR. This was evident during the
administration of President François Bozizé in 2003 to March. Since Bozizé led
the CAR, there has been resistance from some of the rebel forces. The rebellion
continues because of the economic and political weaknesses in the CAR
government. At that time the CAR’s internal condition was very worrying.
Extreme poverty, government institutions, and economic development that both
have no power at all make the CAR population less supportive of the government.
The anti-Bozizé northern population CAR considers Bozizé failed to uphold
democratic commitments, delayed economic reforms and delayed the implementation
of promised politics. It was then that made the rebel group take active
resistance against the government (www.usip.org).
After 6 months after the fall of Francois
Bozize, the CAR condition worsened, as it later found out that the Séléka
Rebels are a Muslim Group that has committed gross human rights violations in
this predominantly Christian country. This is where the conflict develops and
extends from what was originally only a government-opposition conflict, then
widened and transitioned into a Christian-Muslim conflict. On that basis,
eventually, Christian groups formed a militia of resistance who called
themselves as Anti-Balaka. As a result of this, there was a battle between the
two. Bloodshed is inevitable. Therefore, the attention of the international
community, such as the UN, especially the UNSC. The UNSC’s involvement in this
conflict can be seen in the formation of a peacekeeping force called MINUSCA (Hermawati, 2016: 212).
Based on the statement above, the conflict
in the CAR is a conflict that is motivated by the dissatisfaction of opposition
groups against the government. As a result of this, the UNSC must carry out its
duties and functions in dealing with instability in the CAR. When MINUSCA
served as a Peacekeeping Force in the CAR, a lot of inhumane cases occurred and
one of them was sexual harassment. Victims of sexual harassment are civilians,
women, and minors. This certainly destroys the image of MINUSCA as the
Peacekeeping Force because MINUSCA is the troop in charge of maintaining state
stability and protecting civilians who are in the midst of armed conflict.
However, in its implementation, MINUSCA actually performs immoral acts that
violate human rights.
The mission of the UN peacekeeping force
is multidimensional in that its duties and functions are not only to safeguard
and monitor the peace process in the mission area, but UN peacekeepers also
participate in the peace process, and it must be carried out in accordance with
the provisions of International Law (Ambarwaty and Rina Rusman, 2009: 72).
In the context of a country experiencing
extreme conflict, the main and most important goal of a formal peacekeeping
operation or mandate of UNSC is to protect the civilian population.
Peacekeeping forces have been sent to protect the people, but they are abusing
power. It is a form of treason based on trust. The mistakes committed by these
troops have made a disastrous impact on the UN and the loss of world confidence
in UN peacekeeping forces. Therefore, the authors conclude that the role of
MINUSCA as a Peacekeeping Force in CAR in 2013-2015 does not work as expected.
MINUSCA commits sexual exploitation of women and children. As a result of this,
they have to suffer physical and mental trauma as victims of human rights
violations. This is what UNSC fears about the international distrust of the
peacekeeping force formed by it.