USE OF DESIGN MATERIALS TO IMPROVE SPEAKING ENGLISH IN 11TH GRADE STUDENTS AT NUESTRA SEÑORA DE LA PROVIDENCIA SCHOOL IN BARRANQUILLA – COLOMBIA CLAUDIA PATRICIA CRISMATT ROVIRA Final Project submitted to the Foreign Languages Department in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Teaching English FUNDACIÓN UNIVERSITARIA IBEROAMERICANA FUNIBER BOGOTÁ 2018 Dedicatory To my sons

USE OF DESIGN MATERIALS TO IMPROVE SPEAKING ENGLISH IN 11TH GRADE STUDENTS AT NUESTRA SEÑORA DE LA PROVIDENCIA SCHOOL IN BARRANQUILLA – COLOMBIA
CLAUDIA PATRICIA CRISMATT ROVIRA
Final Project submitted to the Foreign Languages Department in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Teaching English
FUNDACIÓN UNIVERSITARIA IBEROAMERICANA
FUNIBER
BOGOTÁ
2018
Dedicatory
To my sons, who are a God’s blessing.

Thanks
I thank God for the possibility that he has given me to achieve the dream of seeing this Master’s Degree finished, which I have developed with great efforts and setbacks but with the conviction and need to finish the path started.

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To my family who have accompanied me and facilitated many spaces to be able to dedicate time to higher studies,
They have motivated and impelled to improve my quality of life and job opportunities through the preparation and updating of knowledge which have been made real through these studies.

To the group of students and colleagues with whom I have developed the research work, who with their life experience have provided me with valuable elements in this project, with whom I have learned and deepened various related elements in the pedagogical and knowledge field, it is precisely in the classroom, in the practice where the teaching is actually practiced.

To my thesis director, for her valuable contributions, patience, time spent on the feedback of the final project that today fills me with happiness as I see another stage of my personal, professional and family life accomplished because we will all benefit from it.

To all of you, thank you for being excellent companions on the way, for all the contributions made in this formative process.

CONTENT
TOC h u z 1.0 Title: USING DESIGNED MATERIAL IN SPEAKING SKILLS91.1 Introduction91.2 Problem question111.3 Justification111.4 Objectives131.5 General objective131.6 Specific objectives142.0 Theoretical Framework142.1 Background142.2 Perspectives from Sociolinguistics152.3 The ethnographical point of view162.4 Interactional aspects162.5 Communicative language ability182.6 Developing communicative competence as a primary focus of a foreign language teaching202.7 Audiovisual Recording212.8 Communicative Syllabus242.10 Using minimal responses292.11 Design Activities with a Purpose302.12 Using Task-based Activities312.14 Communicative Task – oriented activities that engage students in creative language use.343.0 Methodology353.1 Description of the approach adopted for material design363.2 Description of the research tools383.3 Description of the structure where the material will be included403.4 Description of the creative process403.5 Description of the material and/ or activities typology413.6 Motivating the students424.0 Corpus and data collection455.0 Analysis of Results and Discussion516.0 Conclusions66THE RUBRIC677.0 References728.0 APPENDICES78
ADVANCE 1 – FINAL PROJECT
MASTER IN TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE.

USE OF DESIGN MATERIALS TO IMPROVE SPEAKING ENGLISH IN 11TH GRADE STUDENTS AT NUESTRA SEÑORA DE LA PROVIDENCIA SCHOOL IN BARRANQUILLA – COLOMBIA
Usercode
COFPMTFL1310615
Study program:
Teaching Learning as a Foreign Language

1.0 Final Project Supervisor
Verónica Cabañas
Title: USE OF DESIGN MATERIALS TO IMPROVE SPEAKING ENGLISH IN 11TH GRADE STUDENTS AT NUESTRA SEÑORA DE LA PROVIDENCIA SCHOOL IN BARRANQUILLA – COLOMBIA
1.1 Introduction
English has become the most important language in the world, and that is why the Colombian national government has tried in the last years to enhance English-teaching quality. Besides, after the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between Colombia and the USA (2011), it is required that Colombian population has a good English level if they want to participate in this business trade. Although the number of institutions that teach English is increasing, the English level of citizens does not seem to be the best. Even though students start learning Basic English when they start school, the level they reach when graduating may be lower than expected. It reveals that the level of training that English teachers have is not sufficient to make students learn everything successfully.

This research takes place in a social context. The aim is to design material for 11 grade students to help them to speak English spontaneously so as to improve results in the speaking domain. Besides, results in this process are expected to be produced by tools and exercises that do not follow a traditional methodology. On the one hand, according to these facts, the paradigm that better matches this research is the socio-critical. These paradigm fundamentals rely on the emancipatory effect that it causes in the solution of certain problems. On the other hand, this research takes place in the explanatory phase. It means, it explains the phenomena studied and the main objective is to show how some methodologies can give solution to these problems found.

In this occasion, the research has been accomplished in 11th grade at NuestraSeñora de la Providencia School from Barranquilla city. Through observations carried out in the classroom, the research teacher has had the intention of determining the weakest skills present in students. In order to achieve this goal, it was necessary to make participant observation, with the aim of being deep in contact with this situation. As it was seen, and will clearly explained later on, the development of classes has been generally following the same stages, starting from writings on the board by the teacher and ending up doing exercises on the book. Therefore, it makes that the classes are permanently centered on grammar, reading comprehension and writing activities.

Students at 11 grade do not evidence good learning outcomes in speaking skill, and this project has attempted to find the reasons in order to provide a feasible solution so as to maximize their results. According to the European Common Framework Reference (ECFR), they should be on the level B1 according to these standards. These are the items that are going to be developed throughout this research.

Teaching a foreign language is not easy. Nowadays, and due to the need for an effective communication, it should be an important part focused in grammar skill what could cause confusion and limitation in the students at the moment of participating into a communicative process because they need to dominate other skills like listening, for example, what will let them code and decode messages in the foreign language.

When students have to face a communicative situation, and they are not prepared to do it because they do not know how to express some ideas and also do not understand the interlocutor, they could feel frustration because they are not able to participate in communicative situations; for this and other reasons, it is necessary to dominate a foreign language.

It is essential to design several strategies that could help the group of students to feel comfortable using the foreign language as the way they feel when speaking their native language. It would be a good idea to transform the classroom into an authentic context where everybody tries to understand and to be understood without using the native language; motivation is very important for the group of students and challenges them to assume a true compromise according to the English level and interests.

Throughout the whole project the teacher gives a big emphasis to the communicative competence with the objective of improving the process of teaching a foreign language; if the students are able to participate in a simple and daily communicative situation, they can be more motivated to use the new language, overcoming fears and insecurities at the moment of communication. In order to be communicative competent it is necessary to use effectively the four skills: listening, reading, speaking and writing, because all them are important in the learning process and are related between them. The goal of teaching a foreign language is to make students speak this new language, so it is the biggest task of a teacher, who could use some techniques of teaching and learning that help students to be motivated in the use of the new language.

1.2 Problem question
According to the above reading, the following question is formulated:
How can be used design Material to improve speech abilities in English language in 11TH grade students at Nuestra Señora de la Providencia School in Barranquilla – Colombia?
1.3 Justification
The present research on teaching and learning English through action research and design material and its implementation is justified because it indicates that the study, management and proposed solutions must be made from a multidisciplinary perspective, based on a psychosocial study of culture of the population under study.
This research is suitable because it will serve to provide another approach to other similar research, but carried out in different geographical and economic contexts. It certainly leaves as input a new concept in managing the English teaching in difficult social and environmental contexts such as the school of Nuestra Señora de la Providencia.
Its social relevance is that the beneficiaries of the results of this study will be directly students and parents, inhabitants in this context
The practical implications are measured from the problems that can be solved in the study population in the areas of teaching and learning English.

The theoretical value of this research will file that the study and the outcome cannot be standardized since they will only be valid for this school. This research will create new hypotheses for future studies.

The methodological value of this research will certainly contribute to the definition of new concepts and variables as how to investigate in neighborhoods stratum 1, 2 and 3, is not the same that can be applied in neighborhoods stratum 5 and 6.

According to Hernández Sampieri (2014), in justifying an investigation, “In addition to the objectives and research questions, it is necessary to justify the study by exposing reasons, for what and why the study. Most investigations are carried out with a purpose” (p. 40).

In Communicative Language Teaching, speaking is the most important skill. Chaney (1998) says that:
Speaking is the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a Variety of contexts. Also for this author, Speaking is a crucial part of second language learning and teaching. Despite its importance, for many years, teaching speaking has been undervalued and English language teachers have continued to teach speaking just as a repetition of drills or memorization of dialogues. However, today’s world requires that the goal of teaching speaking should improve students’ communicative skills, because, only in that way, students can express themselves and learn how to follow the social and cultural rules appropriate in each communicative circumstance (pp.13-14).

According with the situation of globalization, the governments have seen the necessity to learn and dominate a foreign language. In several working fields people should face situations where it is necessary to know English, for example; for this reason, governments have to try to teach students to understand and speak the foreign language in a good way or at least to be understood.

To participate into communicative contexts it is necessary to dominate the foreign language. Apathy, nerves can be found and unmotivated students, in many schools, which hinder the learning of the new language, but it is not an impediment to say that they cannot learn the new language; students can experience some feelings of frustration because learners say that they have studied English for a long time but they do not know anything about it; one of the reasons of this answer is because they cannot understand and speak the foreign language in a fluently way.

1.4 Objectives
1.5 General objective
Todesign material to improve speech abilities in English language in 11th grade students at Nuestra Señora de la Providencia School in Barranquilla – Colombia.

1.6 Specific objectives
To discover the weaknesses and limitations of students when learning a foreign language.
To specify the extent in what the pedagogical material enables the learning of speaking in students’ class development.
To motivate the students to use the foreign language inside and outside the classroom.

To report possible solutions to the problem detected.
2.0 Theoretical Framework
2.1 Background
According to The Cambridge Online Dictionary (2008), it is important to mention that:
The teaching of languages is based on the idea that the goal of language acquisition is communicative competence and communicative competence is defined as the ability to use language correctly and appropriately achieve communication objectives (p. 249).

Thus, the main objective at the moment of learning a foreign language is to develop the ability to communicate competently, not the ability to use the language exactly as a native speaker does.

With respect to communicative competence, Chomsky (1965, p.35) exposes in response to the theoretical postulation elaborated by normative grammar, in the sense that:
Chomsky linguistic theory deals mainly with an ideal listener-speaker, in a completely homogeneous speech community, who knows his language perfectly and is not affected by irrelevant grammatical conditions such as memory limitations, distractions, changes in attention and interest, and errors (random or characteristic) when applying their knowledge of the language in real performance.

In this way, Chomsky clearly distinguishes the description of the form of language (competence) and the use of language (interpretation) and established that the internal grammar of the speaker-listener who judges the grammaticality of sentences should be the main object of research for the students of the language sciences.

2.2 Perspectives from Sociolinguistics
Communicative competence
Initially, it should be mentioned that Hymes (1974) was the first ethnographer who introduced the notion of communicative competence in terms of “the appropriateness of the sociocultural meaning of a statement” (Cited by Canale and Swain, 1980, p.30).

Second place, for Hymes (1974), Praise (2014) maintaining the idea of ??Chomsky’s underlying grammatical competence, considers contextual relevance as one of the crucial aspects of language knowledge and asserts that meaning in communicative competence is seen affected by context, culture, linguistic code, academic training, etc. that are considered speech contexts where real communicative processes are lived during daily life.

In other words, people know or master a language when they know how to identify a communicative context, to know “when to speak, when not … what to talk about, with whom, when, where, in what way” (Hymes, 1972, p 277). In the same way, they should know the correct way to create a sentence using good grammar. In other words, they argue that the knowledge of the language that Chomsky associated with the competence must be taken more integrally to include knowledge about the components mentioned above, that is, the rules of language use. For all the above, it is a topic or research axis for students of language science.

2.3 The ethnographical point of view
Saville-Troike (1996, p.66) deals with the following about the profile and methodological approach of ethnography, in this way a researcher who uses this technique:
(…) is fundamentally in line with the notion of communicative competence of Hymes, considers the subject from the point of view of contexts of second or foreign language. She clearly divides a central construction of communicative competence into three types of knowledge: linguistic, interactional and cultural knowledge.

Linguistic knowledge is known like the ability to read and understand linguistic signs according with some social agree, which is important into the acquisition of a language. The Interactional knowledge is related with the ability to participate in an active way into simple and daily communicative situations trying to understand it and using several strategies of communication verbal and not verbal.

To manage a foreign language is not easy because of the variety of linguistic codes, foreigners, idiomatic expressions according with the culture, the context, edge, social level, for which it is required to have a wide vocabulary and ability to decoding information according to the communicative situation, so it is interesting to create activities or experiences that let learners practice in several communicative situations, through specific contexts.

2.4 Interactional aspects
More anthropologically inclined, Gumperz, (1981), citing Goffman’s ‘interaction order’, which is the organization of discourse functioning to bridge the linguistic and social elements, argues that “one should look at talk in context as one form of communicative practice, talk is not just a matter of individuals’ encoding and decoding messages” (p.218), but also something by which conversationalists attempt to attain their communicative goals in real-life communicative exchange. Gumperz questions whether theoretical linguists should use judgment of grammatically as the basis for syntactic analysis. He points out that if a sentence is grammatical or not, it cannot be determined without a speaker’s ability to imagine a context in which the sentence is interpreted. He is also aware that the scope of sociolinguistic research in an interlocutor communicative competence has become somewhat narrower, as many sociolinguists simply preoccupy themselves with finding the occurrence and distribution of uttered items or verbal strategies in speech situations based on such external variables as speakers and hearers, audience, settings, and so on.

According to Gumperz, this approach runs the risk of making sociolinguistics research on competence “highly particularistic” (1982):
Contextualization cues, defined as linguistic, paralinguistic, or interactive features habitually used and perceived by interlocutors in order to realize this signaling effect, take many different forms such as the selection of a certain style or code, the use of certain syntactic or lexical forms, and strategies involving conversation openings and closings, just to name a few (p.40).
The following brief dialogue has a number of contextualization cues and other discursive structures contributing to the establishment of a shared understanding of what is actually happening between the two interlocutors: A: Are you going to be here for ten minutes?
B: Go ahead and take your break. Take longer, if you want.

A: I’ll just be outside on the porch. Call me if you need me.
B: OK. Don’t worry. (Gumperz, 1997, p. 41).

Gumperz (1997, p.41) argues that
“If the knowledge of these two interlocutors about their language is limited to a grammatical correction at the prayer level, a message as simple as a request and its acceptance can not be interpreted and therefore not exchanged successfully”.

Consequently, all communicative processes involve several competences such as:
• Understanding of verbal and non-verbal expression,
• Personal interpretation and reading of the communicative sign:
The voice,
Gestures with the body,
Some behaviors of culture and context.

In this way, when the speaker does not have all the necessary skills to face the communicative context, it is very difficult to dominate the second language.

For example, a speaker of a foreign language can understand and participate into a communicative situation trying to code and decode information using some inferences to do a correct interpretation of the message according with the intention.

2.5 Communicative language ability
Ten years after Canale and Swain (1980) had presented the persuasive system of open capability, a more complete, stratified model was proposed by Bachman, who focused on the significance of depicting “the procedures by which the different parts interface with each other and with the setting in which dialect utilize happens” (Bachman, 1990, p. 81). He brought up the way that prior speculations on dialect capability, especially the structures developed by Lado (1961) and Carroll (1961, 1968), obviously neglected to consider the refinement between phonetic learning and the four essential dialect aptitudes (talking, tuning in, composing, and perusing), contending that it was hard to see whether the information parts were comprehended in their hypotheses as basically showed in the dialect abilities aloof modalities and channels, or whether they are in a general sense diverse in quality (Bachman, 1990).
On a similar line, Bachman and Swain (1990), expressed that the utilization of the second dialect is isolated in: punctuation skill and literary capability, where syntax fitness is connected with the right utilization of syntactic and linguistic structure into formal utilization of the dialect, it could be into a formal discourse or composed content and printed abilities alluded to the right utilization of intelligibility and union into genuine informative setting where it is important to utilize past learning to set up a fascinating association of thought through the formation of passage, sentences or finish content to take an interest into open process.
Bachman (1990), states that “printed fitness can, along these lines, be said to have both the piece of Canale and Swain’s talk capability and the piece of their key skill” (p. 81).
Bachman’s even minded capability, the other component in dialect ability, for the most part centers around the connection between what one says in his or her open demonstrations and what works the speaker expects to perform through his or her expressions. This worries illocutionary power of an expression, or “the learning of down to business traditions for performing satisfactory dialect capacities” (Bachman, 1990, p. 90), which he encapsulates as illocutionary ability under the even minded capability.
Illocutionary skill causes the receptor to translate at a few open settings in view of the information of the local dialect, for instance a few motions, manner of speaking, development of the body can have a decent cognizance of the message, which is named businesslike capability and it does some portion of the sociolinguistic fitness where likewise are available diverse perspectives like, culture, traditions, articulations concurring with the place, edge, financial setting, and so on., one might say that every one of these viewpoints are a basic piece of the open procedure, so to take in a dialect is to take in a culture, a specific situation… to take part in an informative trade.
To be more exact, Bachman, examines four capacities relating sociolinguistic fitness: “capacity to be touchy to provincial and social dialect assortments, capacity to be delicate to contrasts in enroll, capacity to deliver and translate expressions in light of instinctive nature of dialect utilize, or what Pawley and Syder (1983) allude to as a local like method for correspondence and capacity to comprehend social reference and interesting expressions” (Bachman, 1990, pp. 95-98) In his system, sociolinguistic skill and illocutionary fitness are assembled to shape a speaker’s practical capability, which, thusly, forms, alongside linguistic ability, the understudies’ dialect skill.

2.6 Developing communicative competence as a primary focus of a foreign language teaching
Brown (1994a), viewing CLT as an approach (that is, a theoretical position about the nature of language and of language teaching), rather than a specific method of teaching, describes four underlying characteristics in defining CLT in a foreign language classroom, which are summarized below: Focus in a classroom should be on all of the components of communicative competence of which grammatical or linguistic competence is just part.

Classroom activities should be designed to engage students in the pragmatic, authentic, and functional use of language for meaningful purposes. Both fluency and accuracy should be considered equally important in a foreign language learning classroom. And they are complementary. Brown (1994, p. 245) states “students have to use their target language, productively and receptively, in unrehearsed contexts under proper guidance, but not under the control of a teacher”.

Following the last affirmation, it could be said that sometimes the learning process fails because of unconscious students who need that teacher is all the time forcing them to speak English; this is an immature attitude in front of the learning process, it does not help the students and teachers to obtain the goals proposed; this is an important assumption that must be taken into account.

Brown (1994a, p. 245) states that “It is clear from these characteristics that CLT is a major departure from earlier pedagogical approaches, particularly grammar translation methods that pay special attention to overt presentation of grammatical rules and translation”.

And yet there seems to be a little consensus as to what actually to present to the learners or what lesson techniques (Brown, 1994a) to use to enhance their communicative competence and not just their grammatical commands through CLT. Moreover, Brown (1994b) lists six key words of CLT to better understand what it aims at: learner-centered, cooperative (collaborative), interactive, integrated, content-centered, and task based. They indicate supposedly ways in which language teaching is conducted communicatively, and so reflect the above mentioned characteristics of CLT.2.7 Audiovisual RecordingIt is realized that numerous understudies have visual taking in; this is an intriguing angle to use through some broad communications that could enhance the act of English in a simple way, similar to varying media accounts, for example, tapes and visual hypermedia programming of their own informative cooperations and model collaborations by local speakers. At figuring out how to make demands, for instance, understudies can not just take an interest in, and in combine work group as a component of their capacity building exercise, yet in addition film their real execution to gather information for examination.
The information in a perfect world cover an extensive variety of circumstances in which they make or get demands, as far as societal position and part of conversationalists, level of burden inside to the demonstration of the demand being made, et cetera. Through close examination of their chronicles and thoughtfulness, understudies will have an opportunity to think about what they said to make demands, linguistic ability (Erickson, 1996).
This same author recommends:
To quantify the accomplishment of the studies’ execution, the instructor can, at that point, play a video cut that shows display execution by local speakers of the objective dialect, in for them to perceive how unique or comparable their open execution of solicitations is, when appeared differently in relation to how local speakers execute a similar demonstration. Here, the understudies can both survey their syntactic exactness being used and find out about the sociocultural suitability of the informative occasion (Erickson, 1996, p. 59).
Additionally, the plain idea of the varying media material empowers the understudies to see and dissect their own particular and local speaker’s nonverbal correspondence too. It is, in this way, prudent that the understudies consider their own informative experience and the nature and attributes of social connection in their objective dialect to build up their Language sociolinguistic ability (Erickson, 1996, p. 87).

One major difficulty facing the use of videotapes this way, however, is the lack of availability of sources of the model interaction.

It must be borne in mind that the environment surrounding students who learn English as a second language and those of the English-speaking countries is very different, which is probably why the latter provide many linguistic contributions, whether they are communicative or not, “for the Most Japanese university students who learn English as a foreign language, access to such sources is quite limited outside the classroom.This limitation makes it difficult for the teacher to collect audiovisual data on video “(Brown, 1994b, p.19). , English is a second language for a Mexican immigrants in the United States, while it is a foreign language for a student in Colombia.In that order of ideas, the teacher of foreign languages must take into account the other subjects of the educational process and the factors that are part of the learning context.

On the other hand, it could be said that a Role-play is an effective way to develop students’ communicative competence, especially the sociolinguistic and strategic competence discussed in Canale and Swain’s (1980) framework. It also helps the students to acquire what Saville-Troike (1996) describes as interactional knowledge.

Thus, learning a language based on a wide range of social and expressive functions requires more than just learning the formation of words and sentences (syntax), correct pronunciation and spelling; rather, one learns “a system of use whose rules and norms are an integral part of culture” (Schiffrin, 1996, p.332).

In other words, learning a language must be a dynamic process and means acquiring knowledge to act appropriately in a cultural group. In order for this goal to be achieved, a teacher must give students the opportunity to act and interact verbally in the classroom. In the discussion about the use of previous audio-visual recordings, it was suggested that students record their own communicative performance for individual evaluation and collective reflection. So you can analyze your performance better to record it through spontaneous role plays. However, Clark (1987, p.41), while recognizing the value of RPGs in a foreign language classroom, cautions that a form of role play in which students simply represent a predetermined script performed by another person would result in mere memorization of stereotypical expressions that may or may not have real life application in the actual communicative exchange. Instead, the teacher must structure their roles so that their students participate in the “creation of roles” and the “negotiation of roles” while interacting.

With regard to Brown’s list (1994b), we must emphasize the six key words of CLT:
Focused on the student,
Cooperative (collaborative),
Interactive,
Integrated,
Focused on content
Based on tasks.

In other words, it can be said that role-playing games that involve roles-negotiation aspects in them have, in a broad perspective, the six characteristics. According to Canale and Swain (1980, p.161) are student-centered activities that require collaboration and participation when interacting, and subjects invariably have communicative goals that produce and interpret statements for the exchange of sociolinguistic meaning. Consequently, this approach makes role plays one of the most effective or even crucial strategies used in CLT to develop its socio-communicative and strategic competence.

2.8 Communicative Syllabus Richards (2001), states “a communicative approach in designing a syllabus is a broad way to language teaching that focuses on communication as the organizing principle for teaching rather than a focus on the mastery of the grammatical system of the language” (p. 24). Following the last author, it is important to create a communicative syllabus that let students develop speaking skills because sometimes teachers are focused in grammar, writing, reading and they do not pay attention to speaking and listening, what limits the learning process of the new language because of the necessity to learn how to use it into real context; in that way, students feel some frustrating because they do not see true results at the moment to listen and try to understand a conversation in the foreign language.

In addition, a second influence on the communicative approach in the teaching of language that takes place in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a substitute for the structural-situational method. Therefore, the teaching of communicative language is a response to changes in the area of linguistics of that time, as well as the rethinking of the need for new approaches to language teaching.

In this way, linguistics moves away from a focus on grammar as the central axis of the communicative process with 19 skills for a consideration of how language is used by speakers in different speech acts.

Likewise, the communicative approach is related to the communicative competence that refers to the ability to use language appropriately in communication taking into account the environment, the functions of the participants and the nature of the transaction.

For that reason:
There is a current or trend (Savignon, 1997, p.9) that considers around the (…) communicative approach has transmuted into synonymous with progressive and innovative language teaching. (…) is then known as the association of behaviors of people considered successful in their performance, specifically, the identification of the characteristics of good communicators.

The communicative approach is a continuous process of construction, semiosis or production of meaning and exchange of meaning between speakers. In addition, it is a dynamic concept instead of static. In this way it is subordinated to the negotiation of meaning between two or more people who have something in common (is common-ication), in other words, it can be said that it is an interpersonal rather than an intrapersonal trait.

So, the communicative approach is closely linked to competition and performance, where competition is an alleged tacit capacity and performance is the evident manifestation of that capacity. The competition is what one knows, while the performance is what one does.

Communicative competence is one of the most difficult skills to appropriate for students because they should face several situations that produce shy, embarrassment, they avoid to have pronunciation mistakes, they don’t like to feel limit in the communication when they want to say something but they don’t know how to do it, they don’t want to be the reasons of joke into the classroom. This situation could be controlled through a hard work of communicative competence which is made up off our competence areas: linguistic, sociolinguistic, discourse, and strategy.

The National Capital Language Resource Center, from Washington D.C (2003- 2004) stated: “to help students develop communicative efficiency in speaking, instructors can use a balanced activities approach that combines language input, structured output, and communicative output” (para. 2).

Since Language input occurs through lectures with teachers (and peer students), listening activities, reading fragments and the language that is heard and read outside of class space. Therefore, it gives the students the necessary material to begin producing associations and references among themselves (National Capital Language Resource Center, Washington DC, 2004, pp.15-17).

The learning of the language can be oriented to the content or to the form.

• Content-oriented learning focused on information, be it a simple weather report or an extended conference on an academic topic. Content-oriented learning can also include descriptions of teaching strategies and examples of their use.

• Form-oriented learning focuses on the uses of language: teacher’s emphasis and other reference on language, pronunciation and grammar (linguistic competence); the words and the appropriate idioms to say in specific contexts (discursive competence); the hypotheses of the speed of discourse, the duration of time, and other social topics of the use of language (sociolinguistic competence); and explicit instructions in sentences to use to request clarifications -fattic function of the language- and repair communication errors. (National Capital Language Resource Center, Washington D.C. 2004, p.17)
For example, while an educator expose a part of a class, joins content-oriented and form-oriented information. It’s, the measure of information that is really recorded in the target language depends on the auditory competence of the students and also on the communicative situation. As long as students at lower levels, or in situations where a quick explanation of a grammar topic is needed, an explanation in English may be more appropriate than one in the target language for the meaning or communication transaction to take place.

In this plan, Richard (1990, p.76) explains that:
Structured production is designed to make students feel comfortable producing recently introduced language-specific items, sometimes in combination with previously learned items. Instructors often use structured exit exercises as a transition between the presentation stage and the practice stage of a class plan. Textbook exercises are also often good structured practice activities.

Similarly, this author (1990, pp. 76-77) recommends that:
In the communicative result, the main objective of the apprentices is to complete a task, such as obtaining information, developing a travel plan or creating a video. To carry out all the above, they can use the language that the instructor has just presented, but they can also use any other vocabulary, grammar and communication strategies they know. In the communicative activities of results, the criterion of success is if the student transmits the message. Precision is not a consideration unless the lack of it interferes with the message (pp.76-77).

In daily communication, in addition to that, verbal exchanges take place since there is some kind of noise (communication gap) of information between the interlocutors. On the activities of communicative results, they imply a gap in the exchange of similar real meaning. To complete the task, students must reduce or eliminate such a gap. In this sense, language as a human fact is a tool, not an end in itself.

So, in a balanced activities approach, the teacher uses a range of strategies between these different entry and exit categories. Thus, students of all levels of competence, including beginners, benefit from this variety; it is more motivating, and it is also more likely to be effective in language learning.

2.9 Strategies for Developing Speaking Skills
Speaking a foreign language is not an easy task because there are many implied structural aspects of the language like grammar, syntax, vocabulary, accent and many unknown special features of the new culture. To learn how to speak a foreign language it is necessary to learn several communicative competences as listening, reading, writing, which are tough and practice in class; sometimes teachers use several methods like repetition, questions to give short answers like an opportunity to begging to use the foreign language into natural contexts which can help students to expand their knowledge and confidence in him / herself , participate in short discussions to give his / her point of view what let them to use new vocabulary and grammar in a different way.

Practical suggestions for improving speaking skills
Transferring L1 strategies
When preparing for a spoken task, make students aware of any relevant L1 strategies that might help them to perform the task successfully. For example, ‘rephrasing’ if someone does not understand what they mean.

Formal / informal language
Give students one or more short dialogues where one speaker is either too formal or informal. Students first identify the inappropriate language, then try to change it. Also show students how disorganized informal speech is.

Vague language
Using tape scripts of informal speech, focus on examples of vague language.

Different spoken text types
Draw up a list of spoken text types relevant to the level of your class. Teach the language appropriate for each text type.
Interactive listening
Develop interactive listening exercises. Face-to-face listening is the most common and the least practiced by course books. Any form of ‘Live listening’ (the teacher speaking to the students) is suitable.

Transactional and interactional language.

Raise students’ awareness by using a dialogue that contains both. It could be two friends chatting to each other (interactional) and ordering a meal (transactional).

Real interaction patterns
Teach real interaction patterns. Introduce the following basic interactional pattern: Initiate, Respond, Follow-up. This is a simplification of Amy B. M. Tsui & Wing Wah Ki. 24. (p. 68).

2.10 Using minimal responsesMinimal responses could be a solution for students who are timid or do not feel confidence in themselves to speak in the foreign language. Short answer is an alternative to motivate them to speak, to use the language and acquire a dynamic attitude into the class to manage the second language. This minimal responses are usually used with beginner students who don’t manage many structures of the new language.

Stovall Burkart (1998) says that.

Many times minimal responses are predictable because the answers are explicit into the questions, often they use idiomatic expressions to talk about an incomprehensible situation or expression, to express doubt, agreement and other possible responses in front of the communicative situation, in some opportunities beginners create their own plan of answer for different questions.(Center for Applied Linguistics, p. 15).

Information Gap
For this activity, students are supposed to work in duos. Later, a student will have the information that another partner does not have and in group they will share their information. Then, information gap activities serve many purposes, such as solving a problem or gathering information. In addition, each partner plays an important role because the task cannot be completed if the information that others in the group need is not provided. Thus, these activities are effective because everyone has the opportunity to express verbally extensively in the target language.

2.11 Design Activities with a PurposeThe National Capital Language Resource Center, Washington D.C (2004) says that:
Ordinarily, communication has a purpose: to convey information. Activities in the language classroom simulate communication outside the classroom when they are structured with such a purpose. In these classroom activities, students use the language to fill an information gap by getting answers or expanding a partial understanding. For example, students work in pairs, and each is given half of a map, grid, or list needed to complete a task. The pair then talk to each other until they both have all the information (‘Teaching Goals and Methods’, para. 4)
Table 1. Illustration of how each communicative area contributes to communicative competence.

2.12Using Task-based ActivitiesWith respect to speakers who use language fluently, they are competent to perform specific tasks such as solving problems, developing plans and working together to complete projects. On the other hand, the use of similar activities based on homework in the classroom is an excellent way to encourage students to use the language. Also, the tasks can be to solve a verbal problem, create a crossword puzzle, make a video, prepare a presentation or make a plan.

2.13Task-based Language Teaching: teachers’ solutions to problems encountered
Jane Mills states this proposal.

Identifying tasks: not ‘Is this a task?’ but ‘How task-like is it?’ ‘We can determine how task-like a given activity is by asking the following questions. The more confidently we can answer yes to each of these questions the more task-like the activity.

a) Does the activity engage learners’ interest?
b) Is there a primary focus on meaning?
c) Is there an outcome?
d) Is success judged in terms of outcome? Is completion a priority?
e) Does the activity relate to real world activities?’ These criteria do not constitute ‘a watertight definition of what constitutes a task, but they will provide us with guidelines for the design of activities which are task-like in that they involve real language use.’
Frequently asked questions concern: time pressures (lack of time to design tasks and do them in class), learners’ attitudes and motivation, use of L1, integrating grammar, perceptions of progress, fear of losing control of class or language.

Making time for tasks in class: some solutions
Use class time for experience of real language in use that learners might not get outside class, especially spontaneous spoken interaction.

Out of class: some text book activities are best done at learner’s own pace – set these for homework, to be checked quickly at start of next lesson.

Get learners to:
• prepare topic and task related vocabulary at home prior to the task
• Do form-focused exercises (grammar, vocabulary) for homework.
• Do the listening / reading and follow up activities in their own time Encourage independent vocabulary learning and out of class projects / surveys.

Adapt text-book activities – four parameters you can adjust:
1 Goal / outcome Make sure the final goal / outcome is clear to students; break it down into stages (with opportunities for exposure and output) so learners know (precisely) how to achieve it. Put in extra steps for a lower level class.

2 Pre-task preparation time Individual learners can think ahead how to do the task (strategic planning) and plan the language they need. This helps to stimulate engagement. But sometimes let them do a task without preparation, spontaneously (involves different skills).

3 Interaction patterns: individuals, pairs, groups, whole class. Plus or minus individual roles: chairperson, spokesperson, secretary, editor, language advisor.
4 Post-task activities
• Planning and giving a report of the task
• Reflecting & repeating the task with other partners
• Comparing recordings of task done by others
• Form focused study, noting useful words, phrases and patterns.
• Learners recording themselves summarizing or repeating the task.
• Reflecting and evaluating on the process.

Task Sequences Priming & preparation (mini tasks) >> Target task (s) & Planning & Report >> Form focus (Such sequences provide exposure (input), chances to use language (output) and analyses form).

Task-based teaching: some principles Aim at richer interactions in class – focus on meaning first, form later Use your text-books flexibly: bend them, ‘taskify’ them Explore what happens when you use tasks: get learner feed-back Collaborate with your colleagues – ‘collaboration is the key’. (Retrieved from: Dave and Jane Wills, Doing Task-Based Teaching’, 2007, OUP).

2.14 Communicative Task – oriented activities that engage students in creative language use.There are some methods to adquire language competence: “Students acquire communicative competence in an interactive environment by engaging in meaningful communication” (Lindfors, 1980). “They learn language in the context of communicating and conversely learn communication strategies while they are learning the fundamentals of language and connected speech” (Seiler et al.1984″, p. 45).

Hopper ;Naremore (1978) describe five methods by which children learn to communicate:
1. Operant conditioning a behavior is repeated. If the student finds speaking in class a pleasurable experience, then he is likely to repeat the behavior.
2. Imitation – The student imitates what he hears.
3. Modeling – The child emulates the communication the adults produce.
4. Self-motivated practice – The students practices sounds because he finds it enjoyable.

5. Rule induction – The child forms certain rules after hearing a number of sentences that use similar syntactic constructions (pp. 23-24).

Next, Gamble (2011, pp.3-4) mentions what:
Getting students to understand and then use what they have been learning is a difficult task for any teacher at any level. Make students enjoy (…)games, as a fun way to learn, but it is important to remember that educational games can be adapted for all ages and skill levels in varied learning contexts. An activity that is simple to implement and highly effective in engaging students to learn for themselves is a form of the old Concentration card game.

3.0 MethodologyMethodology is a systematic analysis of knowledge which is applied in a field of study; in the present work the qualitative method will be used. In the handbook of qualitative research Denzin and Lincoln (2005) describe qualitative research as involving “… an interpretative naturalistic approach to the world. This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of or interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them” (p. 3).

By his part, Sampieri states:
The process of qualitative inquiry is flexible and moves between the events and their interpretation, between the answers and the development of the theory. Its purpose is to reconstruct reality as observed by the actors of a previously defined social system. It is often called “holistic” because it prides itself on considering the whole without reducing it to the study of its parts (Hernández Sampieri, 2014, p. 41)
In this way it will be necessary to do some direct observations to know the population, their strengths and weaknesses in the learning process and the dialogue with students is very important to have a close contact; the qualitative research let us look for interesting solutions to face the difficulties that students present to improve their academic practice into the teaching and learning process into the classroom.

3.1 Description of the approach adopted for material design For this work, it was adopted de Action-research focus:
Action research is the focus of this research. It refers to the process where the researcher has a direct contact with the actors in the situation they are, and tries to find a solution taking into account a base (theory) which will be applied and supported depending on theresult after this process it looks for a way to generate knowledge and a viable solution to the phenomenon founded. Before planning the research strategy, it is important to take into account five important questions that help the investigation. For example, what do I want to know? What counts as data? What do I want to do with the answers? How do I collect the data? How do I make sense of it when I’ve collected it? These questions support the research and give to the researcher bases to plan and implement the research process. (Blaikie, 1993, p. 16).

In this work the research teacher used the Action Research scope. The role of Action Research is to discover processes and mechanisms appropriate to what they are looking for through the actors involved in the environment, they are to negotiate meanings that make sense the actions previous determined by the theories studied about the reality and construct a reality pre-interpreted, to identify the language used by the actors or participants day to day and describe the concerns, reconstruct a theory or borrow and apply another situation and do not impose the theory that the researcher already know.

The researcher not only selects carefully the methods or techniques that they are going to use, but continuously evaluate the research effectiveness during the process of getting data in an investigation (Altrichter, 1993, p. 34).
For this, the researcher who views are needed that can be useful at moment they are involved in a social reality that is exactly this paradigm. The Positivist view is defined and discovered in the same way that the events occur in the real time, and it is exactly that our sense can perceive; and Exploratory view the reality is objective, and within this is important the values, biases and perceptions from the observer and after being measured and accepted.

Here it is two levels that the researcher uses in order to generate knowledge and reconstruct the reality found. The first one is describe and the other one is explain. Just the description generates the explanation. However, the description is the simple act to describe how the actors’ attitudes and actions are.

On the other hand, the explanation is going into depth what it was depicted before. For example, actors play every day different situations and each one must be acceptable, recognizable and owned by people. This new knowledge is useful not only for the researchers but for the participants and the different situations they present and apply what they have been working on. It is important todescribe what happened, explain it, and construct the theory about what is happening where the space the researcher is involved.According to MartinezMiguelez (2000), the action research is not only a set of criteria, assumptions and theoretical principles on educational practice, but also a methodological framework that suggests the realization of a series of actions that teachers should develop as professionals in education. Action research is usually conceptualized as an “action project” made up of “action strategies”, linked to the needs of the research faculty and / or research teams. It is a process characterized by its cyclical nature, which implies a “swing” -dialectical spiral between action and reflection, so that both moments are integrated and complement each other. The process is flexible and interactive in all phases or steps of the cycle. The process of action research was first devised by Lewin (1946) and later developed by Kolb (1984), Carr and Kemmis (1988) and other authors. “By way of synthesis, action research is a spiral of research and action cycles constituted by the following phases: planning, acting, observing and reflecting” (Martinez, M. p. 23)
In using Action Research in an investigation process allows to acknowledge, understand and prove what researchers have found during the procedure, not to forget the previous process done in the research and the well application from this in order to get the success in the study.

3.2 Description of the research toolsNext, Angus and Katona (1953, p.15) indicate:
Surveys represent one of the most common resources of quantitative research in the social sciences. It must be borne in mind that (…) the researcher selects a sample of respondents from a population and administers a standardized questionnaire (…) written by the person surveyed, (…) online, a face-to-face interview or (…) telephone. Using surveys, it is possible to collect data from large or small populations.

To begin the study of the community it was necessary to do a survey to know some important features of the population from 11 grade at NuestraSeñora de la Providencia School from Barranquilla.

The survey was made in Spanish to make the process easier to answer and was developed by a group of (35 thirty five) students of 11º (grade) from NuestraSeñora de la Providencia school in Barranquilla city, who were going to finish their educative formation; the group was selected because of the necessity that they had to learn English to face a labor field in a near future.

The surveys were made during the break, where they had the possibility to work with their classmates and discuss some questions; it was interesting because of the variety of opinions about the same topic, and each one gave their answer according with their personal experience in the learning process of the foreign language. At the end, the results were analyzed to look for some answers to the problem that they had in front of the learning of a foreign language.

Direct observation was also used with the objective to have a clear vision about population’s difficulties into the learning process, especially in the communicative competence, for this the research teacher took some notes about the behavior of the population to project the work plan according with their necessities. The research teacher gave an especial emphasis to the qualitative research method like a way to build self-confident between the students to achieve the expected objectives.

De Munck&Sobo (1998) offer several advantages of using participant observation over other methods of data collection. Since it allows access to the “culture behind the scenes” (p.43); allowing a richly detailed description, interpreted with the aim of explaining “behaviors, intentions, situations and events as understood by the informant” stands out (p 43); and provides opportunities to see or participate in unscheduled events.

De Walt and De Walt (2002, p.8) consider that participant observation is fundamental at the time of data collection and interpretation and focuses on the best development of new research questions or hypotheses.

Some materials were created to promote the active participation into the classroom through the communicative competence as a way to use the foreign language naturally and spontaneously.

3.3 Description of the structure where the material will be includedThe English Syllabus for 11 grade includes the materials designed and task-based teaching at the end of each unit of study.

The research teacher did this investigation in the school “NuestraSeñora de la Prividencia” which counts with 400 students (four hundred students) from transition to highschool. The work was made with students of 11° grade, there were 35 students (20 women and 15 men) for a total of 35 pupils who were between 15 and 18 years old. Students received 6 hours of English during the week, they began the educative workday from 7:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. from Monday to Friday. The group was going to finish their scholar life to entrance to the university or to do a technic career to begin their labor field.

3.4 Description of the creative processThe first step of the creative process was a need analysis carried out through a survey and direct observation. In a first moment the research teacher carried out a survey to the population in study with the objective to have a vision about the problem according to the analysis and opinion of the students, this information was taken into account to generate a first hypothesis of the problem which was studied through a tabulation of data. In a second moment, the research teacher made a direct observation of four sessions (eight hours) to have a close contact with the population in study to observe behaviors that help to broaden the field of investigation and to find correct answers in front of the same; it is important to have a permanent dialogue with the area’s teacher to look for together the best propose that help the group to overcome the communicative competence difficulty in front of the learning of a foreign language.

A next step was the creation of some didactic and strategic materials aimed to strengthen the communicative skills through a participative and active class where students could use their previous knowledge and assuming several roles because the communicative skill is very important in the development of the class; at the end of the exercises the students had the opportunity to give their personal opinion about the class, with something as a little evaluation about the learning process, at the same time they gave some suggestions for the next classes.

3.5 Description of the material and/ or activities typologyWithin the material used to work the communicative skills, it was taken the Role-play as an interesting didactic strategic to strengthen the communicative competence with the population in study.

Incorporating playful strategies in the classroom gives you variety, a change of pace and opportunities for a large amount of language production and also a great fun experience! It can be an integral part of the pedagogical act and not a “unique” event. If the teacher believes that the activity will work and provide the necessary support, it can be very successful. However, if the teacher is not convinced of the validity of the role play, the activity will fall apart as expected (Porter Ladousse, 1987, p.31).

The dynamics of working was explained to the students:
1. The class was divided in several groups of working.
2. The teacher brings life situations: each group received a situation which they should present into the class as they were the principal character of that situation, at the end of the role-play, the rest of the class should give answer to several questions about the situation of life, according with their point view, moral values and ethic.

3. The teacher wrote on the board several mistakes to correct together at the end of the socialization.
4. If students had the equipment to record the role-plays they found their own mistakes.

5. Peer correction, sometimes students were able to correct the mistakes between them.

Another strategy proposed was the use of videos for generating debates and explanations, where students watched several situations of life to debate with the group about the way as they act in front of a specific situation.

3.6 Motivating the studentsTaking into account the results of the study of Willmot et al. (2012, p.3), these show that there is strong evidence that classes where audiovisual material is included can inspire and involve students when they are incorporated into student-centered learning activities by:
• Greater interest on the part of the students.

• Qualified learning experience.

• Greater performances.

• Development potential for a more superlative learning of the subject.

• Development of the learner’s autonomy.

• Improvement of teamwork and communication skills.

• A source of evidence related to interviewing skills.

• Learning resources for future cohorts to use.

• Opportunities for staff development (CPD).
 3.7 Description of the approach adopted for material design
The tasks are an interesting way to deepen in the topics that have been worked in class because the students can practice and acquire mastery of the topics worked in class.The work that takes place at home is part of the reflection and interiorization of knowledge applied individually which can be a contribution to the teaching work because the learner can clarify doubts and delve into issues that have been complex in the development of the class.

The tasks that are carried out in a responsible manner with a good learning objective are productive for students’ meaningful learning, that is, they are acquired knowledge so as not to be forgotten easily because they are part of the knowledge construction process itself. Stimulates autonomous and meaningful learning in foreign language learning.

Description of the material and/ or activities typology.

The material that will be used in task is the results of the topic worked in class like a help to improve and practice the thematic worked in class. So students will have to pay attention to the development of the class to work at home in an individual and responsible way to be evaluated in class, students should be conscious that the learning process required of time and practice to obtain the expected results.
At home they will have to develop extra exercises with some instructions that will be given in class, sometimes the activities will be practiced like:
To create a dialogue between two persons using the expressions learning in class.

To create some postcards to talk about the topic worked in class
They will receive a link where they have to do some exercises about the topic
They will have to record a dialogue, conversation starting from the given topics.
To listen the song and identify expressions that you learned in class ….

4.0 Corpus and data collection
ACTION PLAN from July to November 2015
Objectives Activities Time  Place Resources Accompaniment Goals
To emphasize communicative competence as an effective way to dominate a second language. *Interview
 
 
 
*Direct
observation
 
*Diagnostic activity
 
*Develop of the project From July 13th to 17th
July 21stto
November 6th
 
July 27th-28th
 
August 3rd to November 6th School Our lady of providence Human resource: students of 10º and 11º.

*Copies to the interview
*notebook to the direct observation.

*Chalk and copies to work with students.

*Record grade cd.  
The task has not been easy because of the motivation and population that sometimes don’t want to collaborate in the process, but well, it has been evaluate as an excellent learning experience to improve the use of the second language. Greater ownership and understanding of the second language.

 
*Participate into communicative context in an spontaneous way.

 
*Learn the second language in an useful way.

4.1Context Description
       The population is a community located in the south of Barranquilla – Colombia which is considered a vulnerable and marginal neighbor because of social, laboral and economic situation, children and young people are always susceptible to the drugs and crime, so education is an alternative to help people to find new opportunities of life and a better future.

       The research was in the school “Nuestra Señora de la Providencia”, which counts with 400 students (four hundred students) from transition to high school. The work will be made with 10° and 11° grades, in 10° grade, there are 37 students and in 11° there are 35 students for a total of 72 students who are between 15 and 18 years old. Students receive 6 hours of English during the week, they begin the educative workday from 7:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. from Monday to Friday. The two groups are going to finish their scholar life to enter the university or applying for a technic career to begging their laboral life.

       The main problems found in 10° and 11° were frustration and apathy in front of the new language because of the effort without to have any result. Students have a basic vocabulary that do not let them to communicate in the second language, they unknown some grammar structures what limit the process, they didn’t understand when teacher speaks in English and they think  to learn English is impossible or at less very, very difficult. They know that it is very important and necessary to learn a second language but the conditions do not let them to obtain the aim. In the school there are no  tools that allow them learn in an easy way, they only have a board and some chalks in the classroom, no study text, no record grade, no ICTs, so the task is not easy, the teacher should carry out classes with almost no materials, to use his / her creativity to motivate the learning process.

     When talking to coordinators about the project they explained about the importance of speak English, they did not want students to learn only grammar, they wanted to see results about practical and daily situations, it was like living in a foreign country while they are in school “it’s a dream”, but creativity and the desire to improve the situation of people in need must play an important role here. Coordinators talk about the frustration of students because they are studying English since primary school and just now in high school they are not proficient in the language and they must take the SABER TEST which is a special exam in the nation where English is going to be evaluated, by another way the country is in a special project of bilingualism for which it is required to speak English to entrance in the laboral field, students need to know English to graduate the university and begin their professional life.

Research tools used for the analysis
Direct Observation
       To begin the direct observation reveals that they are a timid population who are not accustomed to listen the new language, so they cannot comprehend it at all, and many of them are absent-minded which make things a bit more difficult. Teacher tries to have students attentive towards the tingo-tango dynamic, formuling some simple questions but sometimes they don’t understand or try to answer in a mocking way, for example: what’s your name? My name is dylachoncarmonachon… or how old are you? I have sixtechonañeschon… giving no proper and correct answers; they actually are not taking class seriously, thus difficulting improvements of the learning process.

 During the next section the teacher stimulate students with the notebook and things became more serious, students were more interesting because of the notebook and they tried to participate, they didn’t have a good pronunciation and most of the time they cannot express what they wanted due to lack of vocabulary, although they asked questions in Spanish, teacher tried to explain that they could formulate them in English for example: How do you say… In English? To show a real English communicative context, at the end of the section students stated that it was an interesting section because they actually do speak in English, they learned to say new things in the new language and it motivates them to continue learning in a good way.

       In this situation the most important is to create good learning environment that help to clarify doubts, practice pronunciation and grammar into a communicative way with real life situations. The researcher could see that during group work they are interested to apply some structures in a good way, they tried to construct some normal explanations between each other, and in some opportunities they call the teacher to clarify doubts because they are not agreement with the answer of their classmate.

       It is common to see students who have more abilities to understand and work in a better way than others who always need a dictionary to look for many words, or those who don’t understand despite the explanation of the teacher and the classmates.  At the moment to socialize the group work, no one want to speak to the class so it is necessary to assign a person by group with the support or help of other students who feel motivated to speak; during the socialization it was no easy task to make students express themselves in a way they could figure out what they wanted to say and how, most of times they preferred to use the native language and at any time everybody was speaking in the native language, so teacher had to stop the class and invite them to use the second language instead.  
 This researcher could see that students have many things to say about the topic they were working on because “The life of teenagers” is an interesting topic for them, it is part of their life since they are young people who feel impelled to have new experiences of life, they wanted to talk about what they do on weekend but they don’t know how to say many things in English, limiting their participation despite having many things to contribute to the class with excellent arguments.

       Students have some problems to differentiate a noun, an adjective, a verb an adverb. For example, they can say: Student English is too difficult for me – instead of: Studying English is too difficult for me. This researcher could guess that they want to use the vocabulary anyway they want without being aware of the function of words in each context. So it is necessary to teach grammar and practice its application into real life situation with specific uses. The researcher could see that they are overdoing the use of a word, which could hinder the acquisition of a new and interesting vocabulary to enrich the communicative competence. For example they always use:  interesting, important, love, like.

       Paradoxically, students can read and understand a text in a good way without many help, either because of the type of reading and practical or easy vocabulary for them. They can give good answer after reading a text in a coherent way. Teacher asked students to read out loud the text, he didn’t check the mistakes of pronunciation but at the end he read the text using proper punctuation and an excellent pronunciation, so they could read again the text with a better pronunciation and many of them wrote down the pronunciation of some words. The researcher could see that students are interesting to learn foul language, and remember them easily to try use them later on among the groups of friends. PLEASE, SEE APPENDIX.

4.2 Study
        In this research it was used the qualitative method, and for material design it was also used the qualitative approach. As main tool to get the data it  was used the observation, the survey and  the interview. 
       Description of the creative process. This is an inductive process, it goes from particular to general.

         See appendix section.

       To begin the study in the community it was necessary to conduct a survey to know some characteristic of the population. The questions that were done to the students can be found below. The survey was made in Spanish to ease the process of answering.

       The survey was made to a group of students from 10º and 11º who are going to finish their educative formation; the group was chosen because of the necessity they have to learn English to face a laboral life into little months.

       The questions were made during the recess, where they have the possibility to work with their classmates and discuss some questions, it was interesting because of the variety of opinions about the same topic, and each one gave their answer according with their personal experience in the learning process of the second language.

      The questions were formulated in Spanish to ease the answering process because the population in study isn’t proficient enough in English to answer in the second language.
See appendix
 
5.0 Analysis of Results and Discussion
5.1 Making a diagnosis about the mean limitations or problems that students have at the moment of learning a foreign language.
At the beginning of the research, 72 students from the “Nuestra Señora de la Providencia”school were interviewed. The results are as shown:
For the question, what language are you studying? the 100% of population say that they are studying English because this is an academic requirement, but many of them do not like the subject because they do not comprehend anything, although they know that they need to know this language into their laboral life, so they have a unique option, that is to learn English.

 At the moment to answer the question, what language do you speak?  An 80% of population says that they only know Spanish. It is because they live in a country where Spanish is spoken everywhere and the population have not felt the necessity to learn another language. The other 20% of the population say that they have basic knowledge about English but they cannot assure that they manage the foreign language.

The 60% of the population say that the easiest way to learn a foreign language is to use it into the classroom to be familiarized with it and prepare them to face new communicative situations outside the school context, another 20% of the population think that to learn grammar structure is necessary because it could help them to build sentences to participate into a communicative situation, the other 20% say that to learn the foreign language in the native language is necessary to understand  how to use it.

1200150217805
On the other hand, a 50% of the population states that they do not dominate the foreign language despite having spent a long time studying it because they study English as a requirement for the academic process and they have not discovered the importance of handling the second language into personal and laboral life. The other 50% of population say that they do not manage the foreign language because of the methodology used into the teaching process that does not help the implementation and use of the foreign language, furthermore, they don’t use it in different contexts other that school.

Continuing with the survey,  the 70% of the population affirms that the most frustrating part of learning a foreign language is not being able to use it because it is considered a loss of time or something that is not important in their life. 10% of population say that the most frustrating is that forget things that they have learned due to lack of use; and the other 20% say that they have felt frustration when they make efforts to learn the second language and they do not get the expected results. 

 Moving forward with the process an 80% of population say that it is not necessary to go to live in a foreign country to learn a foreign language, it could help in the learning process but it does not guarantee anything. A 20% say that it is disposal and interesting to learn the foreign language and to make it useful at any time.

According to the question: is it possible to have a bilingual Colombia to the 2020? A  60% of the population say that to have bilingual country it is necessary to restructure  the teaching methods in the educative institution to show a better result because at the moment, what they are doing have not had the expected results. Other 40% of populations in study say that it is not possible because of the conditions to learn the foreign language, not enough time to obtain the proposal goal, many part of citizen can’t even speak Spanish in an appropriate way to dominate a second language.

 

As a curious case, the 100% of the populations say that it has not been possible to talk a foreign language because we are not prepared to do so, we are a monolingual country and we have not felt the need to learn another language, just now with the globalization the things could be different because of the laboral necessities, business, travel… our geographical location do not help us to dominate a second language because of the usage of the foreign language.       
 

       An 80% of population agree that it is necessary to know a foreign language because of globalization, business, laboral field… it could do easier the successful in the professional life; other 20% says that to know a foreign language is useful at the moment to travel an know another culture,  knowledge is gain  in our life.

      At the end a   70% of population say that it is not a good idea to force students to learn English because it limits their abilities to produce in the new language, rather creating a confidence environment in the classroom could help them to participate to use the new language in a spontaneously way. 20% of population says that working only grammar in a book or notebook is something mechanic that don’t help them to use a foreign language in a practice way, so when they need to perform a dialogue in the new language it is not possible because of insecurity, fear, lack of practice, etc. The other 10% of population says that to use the TICS could help them to be motivated and to learn in an easy way because of learning tools.  

5.2 Putting into practice communicative skills to express ideas or necessities in the foreign language.

       After conducting the interview, it was necessary to do a diagnosis activity in which could be seen that students need to practice listening activities that help them to be a little bit more familiar with the foreign language to participate in an active way through simple activities between the group of classmates.
To begin the diagnosis activity, it was made a dynamic where students had to listen and follow instructions which was difficult because they did not understand the instructions, it was necessary for them to express each other with gestures to develop the activity: After that one of them had to stand in front of the class to give the same instructions to the classmate with the objective to learn vocabulary, grammar structure, follow instructions.
Another didactic strategy was to create short stories, the teacher give them some words that they should use to create a coherent history, the teacher began the history and they should follow it in the order they received the words. It was not easy for them to understand short sentences, they showed insecurity and they could not give correct answer. At the moment to produce short stories they had many mistakes related with grammar structures, conjugation of irregular verb. This was acceptable, conjugate an irregular verb adding ED at the end of the word as if it was a regular verb; in addition they cannot contextualize to participate into communicative situations. As a strong point they enjoy to sing and listening music that they know and it could help them to acquire some English pronunciation and useful expression in his learning process.

During the development of the research they were applied several strategic to improve communicative competence like:
Roll play: the main objective was to contextualize some situations of daily life, in which they should raise possible situations using the vocabulary, structure and expressions learning in class.

Your daughter is pregnant and her boyfriend does not work, he is studying. What can you do? The rest of the class can participate giving some suggestions.
Guess the word: by groups students receive a word, they have to talk about the word without saying the word, and the rest of the class try to guess what the word is, the idea is to have a winner group.

Cinema forum: students watched the movie “The shack” at the end of the movie some questions about the movie were formulated to participate, having them express their point of view. They had to use several communicative strategic to express what they wanted to say about the movie, the participation had a personal note, so everybody had to participate.

On the creativity week, students participate with a value modeling where they represented several values that they have been working, the idea was to represent the value and explain the principal characteristic to live it, the best students had honor prize to live the value.

Another strategy was to read some children’s stories, the best of them were represented in front of the school as a way to motivate them to continuous improving their English knowledge.

5.3To specify the extent in what the pedagogical material enables the learning of speaking in students’ class development.

As everybody knows there are many methods to teach English that has been applied in educative institutions but many of them have not get the expected result because of the context, because of population, because not all the students learn in the same way. The interview show a reality and it is the long time that the population have been studying a foreign language and they don’t speak it, what let us to know that the methods used in the classroom have not been efficient.

       The idea is to teach the foreign language in a practice way where the communicative competence could be used all the time into the classroom; where students take an active position that let them to build their own knowledge to make useful the foreign language. 
At the moment to begging the project it was a big impact because students were not used to receive the class only in English what obey them to think in the new language, to pay attention to understand, sometimes they ask translation into Spanish because they do not understand, but once understood the instruction the class continuous in the foreign language.  Students began to speak in the second language, to be interested how to say many things, in some opportunities they use the native language because it is easier for them, but when they receive the instruction to speak in English they entrance in the dynamic.    
       Like a positive result during the development of the project, it could be the awareness in front of the compromise to learn a foreign language, the necessity to use it into real dialogues and context and personal motivation to obtain the proposed goals. They understood that they should have clear goals, one of them could be to improve vocabulary and pronunciation through individual work out of the class, what could help us to see a better performance in the use of the foreign language, and at least they could express more ideas in an easy way.

  The results are evident because there is a population more spontaneous in the use of the foreign language and interested to say more things in English, they frequently ask to the teacher: how do you say… in English? Out of the context of class, they send English messages through WhatsApp, text message, Facebook what want to say that they begging to give utility to the second language. They are a little more secure when they participate into dialogues or listen English expressions.

       Although, at the moment to finish the project the students still need to practice listening to understand and complete interesting information or identify the main topic of conversation, in some opportunities they are confused because they feel that the information is unclear but it is due to lack of practice; regarding grammar they have clarify many doubts, they can identify regular and irregular verbs, adjectives, adverbs, they can create answers in any time it could be present, past, future or perfect in a good way. Just now they say that they feel safer to present grammar assessment, they have improve their vocabulary and knowledge because of the interest and motivation to use the English in a new way.  It was told that when you practice what you learn you cannot forget it but if you never use what you have studied, you forget it and you can see it like a waste of time; the best way to do useful a language is to use it at any time.

       The results shown us, that it is important to use what students are learning in specific areas that let them to improve and interchange information about several aspect of life, culture, history, business with the intention to dominate a foreign language or at least to be competitive in it.

As all the researching groups, this researcher had some difficulties or limitations in the work with the students one of them could be the materials that were necessary to develop the activities with the students, in some opportunities the researcher felt some frustration when some students could not do a good work or they were apathy in front of the activities, the researcher tried to explain them in a simple way and they did not understand or they could not do it, on time to time the researcher looked for another kind of activities that could be easier for them and we could see better results, but really it was difficult because of the extra time to look for many kinds of materials and the time that you like a teacher have to use to work with only one students while the other 30 or 35 are working alone.
       At the end, the researcher cannot say that it is a magic project because it’s not true but it could be a good option to teach a second language through the use of the same in a real way with several didactic that help students to manage the foreign language, it is a practice learning where the speaking is too important at the moment to give to know new ideas into communicative contexts having present the culture, here the teacher can use his / her creativity to obtain the porpoise objective and the best way to know it is the same population. The main idea is to motivate the students to build their own knowledge with some methodology that take them to manage the foreign language.

 
6.0 Conclusions
               At the end of the work it could be said that to teach a foreign language is not an easy task because it requires of many factors like: population, culture, edge, necessities, maturity of the population, tools and disposition to work.

       To teach a foreign language starting of communicative competence it is a challenge because it is not the custom, the custom is to teach grammar from academia to have a note at the end of the course what say if you are good or not learning a foreign language, when the most important is to acquire the competition which is obtained through practice into communicate contexts of real life, when the person is going to work in an office they are not going to work only grammar they need to face some communicative situation into labor sphere.

       When the population in study is able to discover that they are doing use of the foreign language they feel more motivated to continuous learning and using the new language because they are passed their frustration of the beginning when they study, study, study and they felt that they didn’t know about English because when they listened another person they could not understand and they felt paralyzed because they didn’t know what to do or answer; with real practice into the classroom they can feel able to face a simple communicative situation in the second language with a better result.

       The best way to show that the population manage a competence is doing use of the competence, so the combination between grammar, listening, reading and speaking into real communicative situation taken to the classroom could be the solution for frustration of many learner of foreign language; the experience has shown the results. Students can practice into a familiar way (classroom) what could help them to overcome fairs, to practice the foreign language to acquire confidence at the moment to use it in any context, they are learning to the life, not to a note with handling of grammar and other aspect used in the acquisition of a foreign language.

       The experience told us that when teacher bases the teaching in academic aims the students learn to the exam, to the moment and they forget it in an easy way, it could be one of the reason which students don’t manage the second language despite they have studied it during 8, 9 and 10 years at the end of studies they say clearly that they don’t know anything about the new language what is frustrating for themselves as students and for us like teachers; sometimes many bachelors have lost a job because they don’t know English after have studied English during all their time of school. Well to achieve the goal of the govern to prepare our students for a bilingual country to 2020 it is important to educate competitive person, students able to face the challenges of the moment in a practice way, “we cannot go to the battle without to be prepared to the battle”. 
PLAN OF ACTION FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
In this plan, the mail goal is to strengthen speaking skill activities in students in order to practice in a fluent English.

 
   THE RUBRIC
       Because the students did not reach the level of proficiency to speak English fluently, we believe that the rubric was a very demanding evaluation instrument for this investigation and therefore the evaluation was not applied by means of a Rubric. However, here we present an example of how to evaluate with this instrument.

 
 
Exploring the Advantages of Rubrics
By: Maryellen Weimer, PhD 
“I don’t trust in giving understudies rubrics,” an employee let me know as of late. “They’re another case of something that dilutes instruction.” I was educating him concerning an examination I’d recently perused that reported some noteworthy change in understudy papers when understudies utilized an itemized rubric to manage their readiness of the exploration paper. I wasn’t extremely expressive in my reaction to him and chose I’d utilize this post to investigate a portion of the issues associated with imparting rubrics and reviewing criteria to understudies.
“I don’t understand what you want on this assignment.” It’s one of those comments teachers don’t like to hear from students, and rubrics, checklists, or the grading criteria offer constructive ways to respond. They identify those parts of an assignment or performance that matter, that if included and done well garner good grades and learning. If teachers don’t identify them, then students must figure out for themselves what the assignment needs in order to be considered good.

The protest to sharing rubrics isn’t unfounded. On the off chance that you give understudies a nitty gritty rubric, typically engaged, similar to the one utilized as a part of this examination, you’ve basically deconstructed (a spellbinding term utilized by the investigation’s creator) an exploration report. You’ve separated it into different little pieces, empowering the understudy to do each piece, fix them together, and have an exploration report. In the investigation, explore reports composed utilizing the rubric were altogether superior to anything those composed not utilizing a rubric. It is reasonable for solicit whether use from the rubric enhanced their examination report writing as a rule or just this one time on this one task.

Not knowing how the work will be assessed definitely adds challenge to an assignment. But what’s challenging the students? The time and energy necessary to figure out assignment criteria or the intellectual richness of the work itself? If students get sidetracked by trying to figure out what the teacher wants and that ends up taking as much or more time than dealing with the content, then I don’t think that makes an assignment challenging for the right reasons.

A lot of students are obsessed with trying to figure out what the teacher wants. From their long years in school, they’ve learned that different teachers want different things. It’s not all random whimsy; there are any number of criteria that most of us would agree are relevant to particular kinds of assignments. But there’s lots of variation among us at the level of detail—appropriate fonts, number of references, and whether the first person can be used in essays, for example. Students mostly see this as a guessing game, and there’s not a lot of enduring, transferrable learning that comes from trying to answer questions that revolve around what looks to students like personal preference. I’m not advocating uniform standards here. Personal preference has its place, and some of what looks like personal preference to students isn’t.

I think rubrics have esteem if educators utilize them to get understudies past what the instructor needs to what criteria make papers, undertakings, and exhibitions superb. To start with, seeing that outline on a rubric is absolutely more productive than endeavoring to make sense of it all alone, and utilizing a rubric regularly gathers optional advantages. In the second examination announced by this creator, understudies utilized the rubric to review another understudy’s report. Their criticism was not imparted to the report’s creator. Be that as it may, that evaluation movement alone was sufficient to empower 60% of the understudies to revamp their own paper and get a fundamentally higher score.

We continue to keep students out of the assessment process. No, we can’t let them grade their own work, but assessment should be thought of more holistically. It’s the ability to figure out what criteria others will be using to judge your work. It’s about being able to identify what’s good and what isn’t in your own work. Being able to accurately assess your work and that of others is one of those lifetime skills that separates successful professionals from those less so.

The ultimate goal should be students who don’t need teacher-constructed rubrics. The question is when and how we develop that level of assessment skill.

Different little pieces, empowering the understudy to do each piece, fix them together, and have an exploration report. In the examination, investigate reports composed utilizing the rubric were altogether superior to anything those composed not utilizing a rubric. It is reasonable for solicit whether use from the rubric enhanced their examination report writing as a rule or just this one time on this one task.

Not knowing how the work will be assessed definitely adds challenge to an assignment. But what’s challenging the students? The time and energy necessary to figure out assignment criteria or the intellectual richness of the work itself? If students get sidetracked by trying to figure out what the teacher wants and that ends up taking as much or more time than dealing with the content, then I don’t think that makes an assignment challenging for the right reasons.

A lot of students are obsessed with trying to figure out what the teacher wants. From their long years in school, they’ve learned that different teachers want different things. It’s not all random whimsy; there are any number of criteria that most of us would agree are relevant to particular kinds of assignments. But there’s lots of variation among us at the level of detail—appropriate fonts, number of references, and whether the first person can be used in essays, for example. Students mostly see this as a guessing game, and there’s not a lot of enduring, transferrable learning that comes from trying to answer questions that revolve around what looks to students like personal preference. I’m not advocating uniform standards here. Personal preference has its place, and some of what looks like personal preference to students isn’t.

I think rubrics have esteem if educators utilize them to get understudies past what the instructor needs to what criteria make papers, activities, and exhibitions magnificent. To start with, seeing that depiction on a rubric is unquestionably more proficient than attempting to make sense of it all alone, and utilizing a rubric frequently accumulates auxiliary advantages. In the second investigation detailed by this creator, understudies utilized the rubric to review another understudy’s report. Their criticism was not imparted to the report’s creator. In any case, that appraisal action alone was sufficient to empower 60% of the understudies to change their own paper and get a fundamentally higher score.

We continue to keep students out of the assessment process. No, we can’t let them grade their own work, but assessment should be thought of more holistically. It’s the ability to figure out what criteria others will be using to judge your work. It’s about being able to identify what’s good and what isn’t in your own work. Being able to accurately assess your work and that of others is one of those lifetime skills that separates successful professionals from those less so.

The ultimate goal should be students who don’t need teacher-constructed rubrics. The question is when and how we develop that level of assessment skill.

7.0 References
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 WEB-GRAPHY
English Language Games Digital Book 
file:///C:/Users/CLAUDIA/Downloads/Bagaric_i_Mihaljevic_Djigunovic_ENG%20(4).pdf
http://jalt-publications.org/tlt/departments/myshare/articles/329-communicative-competence-task-oriented-activities-engage-studenhttp://www.ncsall.net/[email protected]=739.htmlhttps://www.jrc.sophia.ac.jp/pdf/research/bulletin/ki26/kamiya.pdf 
8.0APPENDICES
ENCUESTA
 
¿Qué idiomas has estudiado o estas estudiando? 
 
a.       Español.           
b.       Inglés.          
c.        Francés.       
d.       Otros. ______________________________________________
 
¿Quéidiomashablas?
a.        Español.           
b.       Inglés.          
c.        Francés.       
d.       Otros. ______________________________________________
 
¿Cuál crees que sería la forma más fácil o práctica de aprender una segunda lengua?
a.       Aprendiendo estructuras gramaticales.

b.      Enseñar la segunda lengua en tu lengua nativa.

c.       Emplear la segunda lengua dentro de la clase de tal manera que se pueda hacer uso real de la misma.

d.      Aprender vocabulario y frases de memoria para utilizarlas eventualmente.

 
¿A qué se debe de que tengas años aprendiendo una lengua y al final te das cuenta que no la dominas?
a.       Estudias para el momento o por un requisito.

b.      Porque no te gusta.

c.       No la entiendes.

d.      La metodología empleada no ha sido la más adecuada.

 
¿Qué es lo más frustrante al momento de aprender una segunda lengua?
a.       No poder hacer uso de la misma.

b.      Olvidarla con facilidad.

c.       Hacer esfuerzos sin tener resultados.

d.      No encontrarle ninguna utilidad en el campo laboral, social, de negocios…
 
¿Es necesario desplazarse a un país de habla inglesa para aprender inglés?
a.       El contacto con la lengua extranjera es importante pero no lo esencial.

b.      En mi país hay docentes muy bien preparados que pueden enseñar muy bien la segunda lengua.

c.       Es cuestión de interés y disposición para el aprendizaje y darle utilidad al mismo.

d.      Es indispensable vivir la segunda lengua en un contexto real.

 
¿Es posible alcanzar la propuesta del gobierno de tener una Colombia bilingüe para el 2020?
a.       Habría que reestructurar los métodos de enseñanza de la segunda lengua.

b.      La propuesta es irrealizable en un tiempo tan cercano sin la adecuada dotación y preparación de los diferentes contextos educativos.

c.       Hay que ofrecerle una mejor preparación y metas concretas a los docentes de lengua extranjera inglés.

d.      La propuesta es totalmente viable.

¿Por qué no se ha logrado concretar la propuesta de hablar una segunda lengua en el país (Colombia)?
a.       El país no está preparado para esto.

b.      No se ha visto la necesidad de hablar una segunda lengua.

c.       No somos un país bilingüe.

d.      Necesitamos vivir la segunda lengua dentro de espacios concretos.

 
¿Consideras importante aprender una segunda lengua?
a.       Si, en el momento es una necesidad para incursionar en el ámbito laboral.

b.      Si, esto me facilitaría mis proyecciones a largo plazo al momento de viajar y conocer otros lugares.

c.       No lo veo como algo necesario si lo puedo aprender bien y sino no pasa nada.

d.      Saber una segunda lengua enriquece mi curriculum vitae y me abre muchas puertas laborales.

  ¿Tienes algunas sugerencias que puedan ser útiles para ti al momento de aprender una segunda lengua?
This research gave a partial response to the general objective because it seeks “To design material used to speak English”. The design of materials was made and used in the classes, but the students do not speak fluent English.

In the specific objective it was described the process and activities done when they used the design material.GroupName’s initialSurnames_Initia
According to publication Manual, APA, 6th. Ed., (pp. 170-171)
Quoting and Paraphrasing 6.03 Direct Quotation of Sources
Reproduce word for word material directly quoted from another author’s work or from your own previously published work, material replicated from a test item, and verbatim instructions to participants. When quoting, always provide the author, yea; and specific page citation or paragraph number for no paginated material (see section 6.05) in the text and include a complete reference in the reference list (see Citing References in Text, p. 174, for exceptions to this rule). If the quotation comprises fewer than 40 words, incorporate it into text and enclose the quotation with double quotation marks. If the quotation appears in mid
QUOTING AND PARAPHRASING
Example of Appropriate Citation Level
Left-handers make up 8% to 13% of most human populations, with left-handedness more common in men than in women (Gilbert ;Wysocki, 1992; McManus, 1991). Secondary school and university students engaged in “interactive” sports such as tennis and basketball are significantly more likely to be left-handed than those engaged in “no interactive” sports such as swimming or rowing, or than those in the general population (Grouios, Tsorbatzoudis, Alexandris, ;Barkoukis, 2000; Raymond et al., 1996). One possible explanation for this handedness bias is that left-handers are better than right-handers at some visuomotor tasks, as has been invoked to explain the left-handed bias among elite tennis players (Holtzen, 2000).

Note. Adapted from “Frequency-Dependent Performance and Handedness in Professional Baseball Players (Homo sapiens),” by . D. Clotfelter, 2008, Journal of Comparative Psychology, 122, p. 68. Copyright 2008 by the American Psychological Association.

CREDITING sentence, end the passage with quotation marks, cite the source in parentheses immediately after the quotation marks, and continue the sentence. Use no other punctuation unless the meaning of the sentence requires such punctuation.
Interpreting these results, Robbins et al. (2003) suggested that the “therapists in dropout cases may have inadvertently validated parental negativity about the adolescent without adequately responding to the adolescent’s needs or concerns” (p. 541), contributing to an overall climate of negativity. If the quotation appears at the end of a sentence, close the quoted passage with quotation marks, cite the source in parentheses immediately after the quotation marks, and end with a period or other punctuation outside the final parenthesis. Confusing this issue is the overlapping nature of roles in palliative care, whereby “medical needs are met by those in the medical disciplines; nonmedical needs may be addressed by anyone on the team” (Csikai;Chaitin, 2006, p. 112).
If the quotation comprises 40 or more words, display it in a freestanding block of text and omit the quotation marks. Start such a block quotation on a new line and indent the block about a half inch from the left margin (in the same position as a new paragraph). If there are additional paragraphs within the quotation, indent the first line of each an additional half inch. Double-space the entire quotation. At the end of a block quotation, cite the quoted source and the page or paragraph number in parentheses after the final punctuation mark:
Others have contradicted this view: Co-presence does not ensure intimate interaction among all group members. Consider large-scale social gatherings in which hundreds or thousands of people gather in a location to perform a ritual or celebrate an event. In these instances, participants are able to see the visible manifestation of the group, the physical gathering, yet their ability to make direct, intimate connections with those around them is limited by the sheer magnitude of the assembly. (Purcell, 1997, pp. 111—112).
Alternatively, if the quoted source is cited in the sentence introducing the block quote (e.g., “In 1997, Purcell contradicted this view …”), only the page or paragraph number is needed at the end of the quotation.