Tourism a large quantity of literature focus on the

Tourism is one of the fastest growing
industries in the world and is influencing in different features of human´s
life such as environment, economy and culture. With the development in an area,
the more impacts can be perceived and can
create two different perspectives of tourism, be criticized or be praised (Milman
and Pizam, 1988; Ap and Crompton, 1993; Deery et al., 2012). As a consequence, mass tourism has become an
important subject to study due to its
impacts on destinations. This model of tourism was
developed between the 1950s and 1960s when some destinations become a popular place for a
vacation, especially the” sun and sand”  all-inclusive
holiday’s packages
(Martinez-Garcia, Raya & Majó,2017). As a result of this new model
of tourism, many destinations, especially in the Mediterranean coast, became very
popular for tourists, as a consequence of
the high demand a huge development process
to accommodate the tourist begun. Consequently,
the development of tourism infrastructures
such as big hotel resorts, restaurants, bars and leisure facilities cannot be achieved without costs(Sharpley,2014; Wall & Mathieson,2006).Therefore, the
rapid development of tourism provoked
different levels of impacts on destinations environment
and economy,  however, there is a large quantity of
literature focus on the socio-cultural impacts due to the importance of the
interaction between tourist and host communities(Sharpley,2014).The
relationship between visitor and host is a key point on the success of a
destination. The development of any tourism area is highly influenced by the community,  and the balance between residents and tourists
is a significant factor in tourist satisfaction,
for that reason, it is vital for the
success of the tourism industry (Andriotis and Vaughan,2003).

As is mentioned before the relationship
between host and guest is a important key in any touristic destination, to
achieve this balance the first step is to understand both positive and negative
socio-cultural impacts of mass tourism.

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positive and negative impacts examples.



Theoretical framework

In recent years, mass tourism  has become an important issue for many destinations, where the high affluence of
tourist has created a negative perception of tourism on locals and their
communities (Choi & Murray,2010; Easterling, 2004; Nunkoo, Smith,2013; Sharpley,2014; Zhang, Fan, Tse & King,2016).Therefore,
there is a large number of studies
related to these socio-cultural impacts
and to the attitudes of host communities towards tourism. Different theoretical
models and approaches have been used to
carry these studies, the Social Exchange Theory(SET) and the Tourism Area Life
Cycle(TALC) model have been the most common theoretical models used in
socio-cultural research (Butler,1980; Easterling,2004; Nunkoo et al.,2013; Sharpley,2014). Furthermore, these theoretical models are an
extension of the Irritation Index proposed by Doxey in 1975, where it is
explained the hosts-tourists interaction in four stages, from euphoria to apathy,
irritation and finally antagonism(Doxey,1975). Following this theory,
Butler(1980) proposed the Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC), where it is described
that tourism areas go through six different stages, exploration, involvement, development, consolidation and stagnation, where at this stage the destination
can fall into a decline or rejuvenation(Butler,1980).








Figure 1. Irritation Index
(Doxey,1975) and Tourism Area Life Cycle (Butler,1980).


Moreover, Ap (1992) implement the
Social Exchange Theory in tourism. This theory is based on the relationship
between residents and tourist where host communities expect benefits in return
for the resources provided for tourism, hoping
to maximized personal satisfaction(Lee, Capella, Taylor, Luo, & Gabler,
2014). Indeed, if the exchange of resources is high, the perception of the
residents will be perceived as a positive impact, whereas, if it is low,
tourism impact will be viewed as negative
(Rockey ,2012).

Social Exchange Process (Ap,1992).



are they important? how applies to destinations?

carraying capacity


Overtourism and turismofobia




Venice example

Posible solutions to overtourism

2.4  Research Questions, what I want to find?

mass tourism is affecting local communities ?

could be done to manage the high afluence of tourist?

the problem still remain?

are the feeling of locals towards visitors?





Milman, A. and Pizam, A. 1988. Social impacts of tourism on central
Florida. Annals of Tourism Research, 15, 191-204.

Deery, M., Jago, L. and Fredline, L. 2012. Rethinking social impacts
of tourism research: A new research agenda. Tourism Management, 33 (1). 64-73.

Wall, G & Mathieson, A (2006)
Tourism: Change, impacts and
opportunities.Pearson Prentice Hall, Harlow.pp

K & Vaughan, R
(2003)Urban Residents´Attitudes toward Tourism Development:
The Case of Crete.Journal Of Travel research,42(2)172-185.

Lee, J. J., Capella, M. L., Taylor, C. R., Luo, M.
M., & Gabler, C. B. (2014). The financial impact of
loyalty programs in the hotel industry: A social exchange theory perspective.
Journal of Business Research, 67(10), 2139–2146.

Ap, J. (1992). Residents’ perceptions
on tourism impacts. Annals of Tourism Research, 19(4), 665–690.

Rockey, D. L.Jr., & Lankford, S. (2012). Attitudes of local
residents to recreation and tourism development of Fredericksburg/
Spotsylvania: A case study. e-Review of Tourism Research (eRTR), 10(1), 1–12.

Butler, R. (1980). The concept of a tourist area life cycle of
evolution: Implications for management of resources. Canadian Geographer,
24(1), 5–12.

Choi, H., & Murray, I. (2010). Resident attitudes toward
sustainable community tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(4), 575–594.

Doxey, G.V. (1975). A causation theory of visitor-resident
irritants: Methodology and research inferences. Travel and Tourism Research
Association Sixth Annual Conference Proceedings. San Diego, CA, 195–198.

Easterling, D. S. (2004). The residents’ perspective in tourism
research: A review and synthesis. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing,
17(4), 45–62.

Ap, J., & Crompton, J. (1993). Resident strategies for
responding to tourism impacts. Journal of Travel Research, 32(1), 47–50.


Nunkoo, R., Smith, S. L. J., & Ramkissoon, H. (2013). Residents’
attitudes to tourism: A longitudinal study of 140 articles from 1984 to 2010.
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(1), 5–25.

Sharpley, R. (2014). Host perceptions of tourism: A review of the
research. Tourism Management, 42, 37–49.

Zhang, H. Q., Fan, D. X. F., Tse, T. S. M., & King, B. (2016).
Creating a scale for assessing socially sustainable tourism. Journal of
Sustainable Tourism,25(1),61-78.

Martínez?Garcia E, Raya JM,
Majó J.(2017) Differences in residents’ attitudes towards tourism among mass
tourism destinations. International 
Journal of Tourism Research,19(5) , 535–545.