Tourism is one of the fastest growing
industries in the world and is influencing in different features of human´s
life such as environment, economy and culture. With the development in an area,
the more impacts can be perceived and can
create two different perspectives of tourism, be criticized or be praised (Milman
and Pizam, 1988; Ap and Crompton, 1993; Deery et al., 2012). As a consequence, mass tourism has become an
important subject to study due to its
impacts on destinations. This model of tourism was
developed between the 1950s and 1960s when some destinations become a popular place for a
vacation, especially the” sun and sand” all-inclusive
(Martinez-Garcia, Raya & Majó,2017). As a result of this new model
of tourism, many destinations, especially in the Mediterranean coast, became very
popular for tourists, as a consequence of
the high demand a huge development process
to accommodate the tourist begun. Consequently,
the development of tourism infrastructures
such as big hotel resorts, restaurants, bars and leisure facilities cannot be achieved without costs(Sharpley,2014; Wall & Mathieson,2006).Therefore, the
rapid development of tourism provoked
different levels of impacts on destinations environment
and economy, however, there is a large quantity of
literature focus on the socio-cultural impacts due to the importance of the
interaction between tourist and host communities(Sharpley,2014).The
relationship between visitor and host is a key point on the success of a
destination. The development of any tourism area is highly influenced by the community, and the balance between residents and tourists
is a significant factor in tourist satisfaction,
for that reason, it is vital for the
success of the tourism industry (Andriotis and Vaughan,2003).
As is mentioned before the relationship
between host and guest is a important key in any touristic destination, to
achieve this balance the first step is to understand both positive and negative
socio-cultural impacts of mass tourism.
positive and negative impacts examples.
In recent years, mass tourism has become an important issue for many destinations, where the high affluence of
tourist has created a negative perception of tourism on locals and their
communities (Choi & Murray,2010; Easterling, 2004; Nunkoo, Smith,2013; Sharpley,2014; Zhang, Fan, Tse & King,2016).Therefore,
there is a large number of studies
related to these socio-cultural impacts
and to the attitudes of host communities towards tourism. Different theoretical
models and approaches have been used to
carry these studies, the Social Exchange Theory(SET) and the Tourism Area Life
Cycle(TALC) model have been the most common theoretical models used in
socio-cultural research (Butler,1980; Easterling,2004; Nunkoo et al.,2013; Sharpley,2014). Furthermore, these theoretical models are an
extension of the Irritation Index proposed by Doxey in 1975, where it is
explained the hosts-tourists interaction in four stages, from euphoria to apathy,
irritation and finally antagonism(Doxey,1975). Following this theory,
Butler(1980) proposed the Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC), where it is described
that tourism areas go through six different stages, exploration, involvement, development, consolidation and stagnation, where at this stage the destination
can fall into a decline or rejuvenation(Butler,1980).
Figure 1. Irritation Index
(Doxey,1975) and Tourism Area Life Cycle (Butler,1980).
Moreover, Ap (1992) implement the
Social Exchange Theory in tourism. This theory is based on the relationship
between residents and tourist where host communities expect benefits in return
for the resources provided for tourism, hoping
to maximized personal satisfaction(Lee, Capella, Taylor, Luo, & Gabler,
2014). Indeed, if the exchange of resources is high, the perception of the
residents will be perceived as a positive impact, whereas, if it is low,
tourism impact will be viewed as negative
Social Exchange Process (Ap,1992).
are they important? how applies to destinations?
Overtourism and turismofobia
Posible solutions to overtourism
2.4 Research Questions, what I want to find?
mass tourism is affecting local communities ?
could be done to manage the high afluence of tourist?
the problem still remain?
are the feeling of locals towards visitors?
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