To defund or not defund Planned Parenthood? Planned Parenthood was founded in 1916. They provide healthcare for women, men, and young people. They are also the nation’s largest provider of sex education. 2.4 million women, men, and adolescents are provided with sexual and reproductive health care, education, and information in a single year from Planned Parenthood. If Planned Parenthood were to be defunded 2.4 million patients would lose access to care. The people most invested in this issue are the ones it will affect. One side of the people want to defund Planned Parenthood because of the abortions they provide and to get rid of their public healthcare they also provide. The other side does not want to defund Planned Parenthood because it could affect health care and iit provides education and services to people who need it. This issue needs to be discussed because it affects a lot of people in the country. 2.4 million people. It could also affect everyone because it was defunded and the side effects it will cause. For many women in America, Planned Parenthood is the only place where they are able to get needed quality care and feel safe to do so. So many people depend on Planned Parenthood for health care. Planned Parenthood is the largest recipient of federal funding for family planning. Planned Parenthood gets nearly half a billion dollars every year. Senator Bill Cassidy from Louisiana says “that the defunding of Planned Parenthood would ensure the money goes towards rural centers, so women do not have to travel far to get a cancer screening.” Meghan McFadden from the Seattle times talks about how Planned Parenthood was involved in an issue where they were said to be harvesting fetal tissue from abortions and reselling it for money. A video to prove everything, how much fetal tissue is sold for and about fetal organ market, was released after being held for over a year. Which to everyone is still unknown as to why it was held for so long and was not released sooner. Once people found out about the video and what they do with the fetuses they were outraged. They wanted to put an end to Planned Parenthood and their selling of fetuses and all the services they provide. It was later that people found out the video was heavily edited. Planned Parenthood made a statement that they donated the fetal tissue for scientific research. Since the reader should understand this knowledge of the issue, the following are the research questions for this literature review:What is the history of Planned Parenthood?Who will defunding Planned Parenthood affect?What are the controversies surrounding it?What can be done to make both sides happy?What is the history of Planned Parenthood? According, to Planned Parenthood, in the article “Our History,” Planned Parenthood was founded in 1916 by Margaret Sanger, her sister Ethel Byrne, and activist Fania Mindell (Our History, Planned Parenthood.org). Sanger created the term birth control. According to Charlotte Alter from the Time in the article “How Planned Parenthood Changed Everything,” The three of them opened America’s first birth control clinic in Brooklyn, the beginning of Planned Parenthood Federation of America (Charlotte Alter, How Planned Parenthood Changed Everything, Time). All three women were jailed for 30 days because they broke the “Comstock Law” which prohibited discussion and dissemination of birth control. Now, Planned Parenthood affiliates operate more than 600 health centers across the United States. In 1956, the first large-scale human trial of the birth control pill was carried out in Puerto Rico. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the sale of pills for contraception on May 9, 1960. Within 5 years, 1 out of every 4 married women in the U.S. under the age of 45 had used the pill (Our History, Planned Parenthood.org). According to Planned Parenthood in the article “Our History,” the pill soon changed the lives of women and families across the U.S. and around the world (Our History, PlannedParenthood.org). There was now an easy and effective way to prevent pregnancy, which there had not been. The pill was still not available nationwide, as some states still banned all forms of contraception. According to the PlannedParenthoodAction.org article “Griswold v.Connecticut,” In 1965, in the landmark case Griswold v. Connecticut, the Supreme Court ruled that states couldn’t deny the sale of contraception to married couples. That led 10 states to legalize birth control. Seven years after, in 1972, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down a Massachusetts statute that banned the distribution of contraceptives to unmarried people in Eisenstadt v. Baird. So by the early 70s anyone, single or married, was allowed to get birth control from their doctor. In 1973, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of abortion rights in the landmark case Roe vs. Wade, citing the right to privacy. Roe vs. Wade guaranteed the right to safe and legal abortion within the first 3 months of pregnancy in all 50 states. Roe vs. Wade remains the law today (Our History, Planned Parenthood.org).Who will defunding Planned Parenthood affect? According to the website Istandwithpp in the article “The Impact of Defunding Planned Parenthood” There are no other healthcare providers in more than 20% of the counties where Planned Parenthood centers work, which is a problem if it were to be defunded. There are also not enough healthcare providers to take over if Planned Parenthood were to be defunded. Planned Parenthood healthcare centers provide nearly 2 million people with birth control, over 4.2 million STD tests and treatments for those who need it, over 320,000 breast screenings; and nearly 295,000 Pap Smears every year. If Planned Parenthood were to be shut down, 2.4 million patients would lose access to care. About 60% of Planned Parenthood’s patients access health care at its health centers with publicly funded programs like Medicaid or Title X (The Impact of Defunding Planned Parenthood, Istandwithpp.org). Texas has already tried defunding Planned Parenthood and it did not work out for them. 30,000 women lost access to publicly funded family planning services. A study in Texas found that pregnancy-related deaths nearly doubled after the state decided to stop the funding to Planned Parenthood for a year. It’s goal was to reduce abortions, but it resulted in the abortion rate going up. 54% fewer patients in the state received care. According to a recent Quinnipiac poll, on the Washington Post by Sarah Pulliam Bailey, 62% of Americans oppose defunding Planned Parenthood. A study I gave to the class showed that a large majority of the class were pro-choice. Some students were pro-life. And even one or two who left it blank. What are the controversies surrounding the defunding of Planned Parenthood? Planned Parenthood claims only 3% of there services are abortions, when it is really 14%. House Speaker Paul Ryan was the one to announce that Republicans would move to stop all federal funding to Planned Parenthood. Republicans have been trying to defund Planned Parenthood since 2011 when then House Speaker John Boehner threatened to shut down the federal government over the issue, because Planned Parenthood clinics offer abortion services. According to Julie Hirschfeld Davis of the New York Times, “more than a dozen Republican-controlled states have attempted to defund Planned Parenthood” and similar abortion providers in recent years.” According to Mike DeBonis of The Washington Post, in the article “House votes to defund Planned Parenthood, but will that help avert a shutdown?” states that on September 18 2015, the House of Representatives passed a bill (241-187) that would take away federal funding for one year. It was passed because of a video that was released from an activist group claiming that Planned Parenthood officials were illegally selling fetal tissue for profit. Planned Parenthood denied all accusations, saying that the tissue was donated and all services are non-profit. Defunding Planned Parenthood would make getting abortions even more difficult to get and likely increase the number of deaths. Out of all the three million women Planned Parenthood provided services to last year, 329,000 received abortions (“House votes to defund Planned Parenthood, but will that help avert a shutdown?, The Washington Post).Women have the right to decide what happens with their own body and the full access to contraceptive services they may need. The Defunding of Planned Parenthood would more than likely cause the organization to fall apart. Which would result in hundreds of employees out of work and about 600,000 patients needing a new place to receive health services. One party is for the funding where the other is not. According to the Abortion.procon.org in the article, “Should Abortion Be Legal?” The other party considers abortion to be murder. Killing an innocent human being is wrong. Even if the human being as yet to be born. Unborn babies are considered human beings by the US government. About 38 states have passed fetal homicide laws. This law is to protect the unborn child from murder and/or assault ( “Should Abortion Be Legal?, Abortion.procon.org”). Another opposing view is that life begins at conception. This means that unborn babies have the right to live. Another opposing view is that the fetus feels pain during the abortion procedure. A professor of Neurobiology and Anatomy and Adjunct Associate Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Utah School of Medicine, explains that by 8 weeks the fetuses spinal reflex is developed. Which is the most basic response to pain. “There is universal agreement that pain is detected by the fetus in the first trimester.” According to Kanwaljeet J. S. Anand, MBBS, DPhil, Professor of Pediatrics, Anesthesiology and Neurobiology at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center ( “Should Abortion Be Legal?, Abortion.procon.org”). One last opposing view against abortions is that if women become pregnant, they should accept the responsibility that comes with producing a child. Women need to take responsibility for their actions and accept the consequences. Having sexual intercourse even with contraceptive measures used still run the risk of a pregnancy. The unborn should not be punished as a result of mistakes made by the adults ( “Should Abortion Be Legal?, Abortion.procon.org”). People want to defund Planned Parenthood because of all the money they get from federal funding. According to Danielle Kurtzleben, from the NPR, in the article “Fact Check: How Does Planned Parenthood Spend That Government Money?”, Planned Parenthood gets about $1.3 billion in revenue (para6). This image also from the NPR, shows where Planned Parenthood gets their revenue from. This shows that Planned Parenthood gets a large majority of its money from the Government. This also shows that without public funding Planned Parenthood would be in heavy financial trouble. Emily Crockett from the Vox in the article “The GOP’s crusade to defund Planned Parenthood nationwide, explained,” Planned Parenthood has become a proxy battle for a much bigger, decades-long war over legal abortion (para9). Planned Parenthood is the nation’s largest and most visible abortion provider, and they performs nearly half of legal abortions in the US. Republicans have tried many times to shut down Planned Parenthood, but have failed because of Democrats and President Obama. According to Colleen Curry of the Global Citizen in the article “Planned Parenthood: What Will Happen If Congress Slashes Its Funding,” states that Planned Parenthood operates 650 health clinics around the country that offer nearly 3 million patients a year. There is already a law forbidding Planned Parenthood from receiving reimbursement for abortions. The new law the Republicans want to implement would merely forbid Planned Parenthood from being reimbursed for all of the other non-abortion services it provides (Planned Parenthood: What Will Happen If Congress Slashes Its Funding, Globalcitizen.org)..What can be done to make both sides happy?According to Laura Olson, from the Mcall, in the article “Charlie Dent among lawmakers who scuttled House GOP abortion bill,” a moderate Republican from Pennsylvania believes he devised a “reasonable” solution to the debate over Planned Parenthood. Rep. Charlie Dent, wanted to temporarily withhold funding from the specific clinics who were allegedly involved in the controversy of Planned Parenthood selling the tissue from aborted body parts, and permanently close a loophole that may be allowing doctors to lawfully alter the way they perform abortions. Dent also said that not everyone is going to want this. Some people from his side are going to want to fully shut down Planned Parenthood. Dent’s proposal was met with backlash from House conservatives. According to BBC News, in the article “First 100 days: Where President Trump stands on key issues,” states that President Trump has faced a lot criticism because he repeatedly changes his views on abortion rights. He recently said that he was pro-life. President Trump proposed a compromise to Planned Parenthood. President Trump offered to maintain federal funding for Planned Parenthood if the group stops providing abortions. Republicans are looking to defund Planned Parenthood through the same reconciliation bill that will repeal ObamaCare. Planned Parenthood firmly rejected the proposal from President Trump. Planned Parenthood has chosen to stand and fight for what they believe in. Planned Parenthood has stood strong against these attacks. Many pro-life activists were angry that Planned Parenthood had declined the offer from President Trump. Pro-life activists say that Planned Parenthood’s rejection of the deal, provided to them from the President, is evidence that they prioritize abortion over other health services (“First 100 days: Where President Trump stands on key issues,” BBC News).