This originated in three public statements namely the Budapest

paper is an attempt to study open access resources and open access repositories
in India. Open access repositories were identified from the literature and open
access directory- OpenDOAR. The analysis of the study found seventy nine open
access repositories in India. Among them 84.8 per cent are institutional
repositories (IRs) and multidisciplinary in nature. More than half of the
Indian repositories prefer DSpace software. The study found Shodhganga of
INFLIBNET is the biggest repository in India having 170509 documents. Even
though the number of IRs in India is growing steadily, the growth rate of IRs is
not satisfactory in compare to the total number of institutions in India.

Key words:
Institutional repositories, Open access repositories, Open access resources and

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The term ‘open access’ (OA) was first originated in three
public statements namely the Budapest Open Access Initiative in February 2002, the Bethesda Statement on Open Access
Publishing in June 2003, and the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to
Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities in
October 2003. Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), states open
access as: free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to
read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of
these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use
them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical
barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet
itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role
for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the
integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited. (Budapest
Open Access Initiative, 2002)

Open Access Initiative also recommends two strategies for open access. The
first one is open access publishing and the other one is self archiving. Self
archiving is the practice of depositing e-prints (published papers and
pre-prints) into open electronic archives set up by the researchers’ own
institutions. A university-based institutional repository is
a set of services that a university offers to the members of its community for
the management and dissemination of digital materials created by the
institution and its community members. It is most essentially an organizational
commitment to the stewardship of these digital materials, including long-term
preservation where appropriate, as well as organization and access or
distribution (Lynch, 2003). Open-access IRs are the most cost-effective and
immediate route to providing maximal access to the results of publicly funded
research, thereby maximizing the potential research impact of these
publications (Harnad, 2001a; 2001b; 2003).  

Promotion of open access in India has been
largely due to the efforts of Leslie Chan, Barbara Kirsop, Subbiah Arunachalam
and the late T.B. Rajasekhar (Fernandez, 2006). The Indian
initiatives in open access repositories date back to the development of the
repository of Indian institute of Science in 2002. After that, there are number
of institutions started to develop IRs. This study evaluates the current
situation of open access repositories in India with special reference to the
growth, strength and geographical distribution.


Scholars have explored diverse facets of institutional
repositories and open access resources. The author reviewed some relevant
studies on the characteristics of Indian institutional repositories. Mittal and Mahesh (2008) stated that the
collection size in most digital libraries and repositories is in a few
hundreds. Tripathi and Jeevan (2011) opined only
a small number of IRs have more than one thousand items. Hanief Bhat (2014) also pointed out that barring a few repositories the collections of
the most of the repositories are very small (in
the hundreds). Even the repositories of those institutions which publish
large numbers of papers in scholarly journals do not reflect this in their

Choudhury and Choudhury (2014) noted that the strength of
Indian IRs is quite satisfactory as compare with other developing countries. Poongodi
and Muralidhar (2015) revealed that the growth and development of IR in
India is encouraging with the significant proliferation of open access and
digital library initiatives. Singh (2016) also
identified that there is a trend towards the development of open access
repositories are increasing among higher education and research institutions.

Sen and Dutta (2005) stated that most of the repositories are using open source
repository software like DSpace, Greenstone digital library software and
EPrints.  Roy et al (2011) also stated that DSpace software has the most
installations followed by E prints and Greenstone. Cherukodan and Kabir (2016)
confirmed that India
occupies second position among the countries that have adopted DSpace open
source software for institutional repositories (IRs)/digital libraries (DLs).

literature survey on the area of open access and open repositories revealed
that there is a gap in the knowledge on the issue of strength, growth and geographical
distribution of repositories. This paper is intended to fill the gap.


To provide an overview of open access
repositories across the world.

To analyse growth and geographical
distribution of Indian IRs.

To find out the characteristics of the
Indian IRs by size, content type, scope, language and software used.


access resources and open access repositories in India were identified from the
literature and open access directory- OpenDOAR. OpenDOAR is a directory of open access repositories around the world maintained
by SHERPA services, based at the Centre for Research Communications at the
University of Nottingham. The data was collected on 17th November