There is a constant debate regarding how criminals should be treated within a justice system. Should attempts be made to fully integrate them into society? Should they be locked up forever and be deemed as ‘unfixable’? On most occasions, it is possible to remediate a prison sentence, however, some sentences do not allow for any possibility of changing what was done. This is how capital punishment applies within many justice systems. Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a practice wherein criminals who have been deemed to have committed a heinous crime are sentenced to death, historically by hanging. This practice has been abolished in many countries, but still remains active in fifty-eight countries. Canada itself completely abolished capital punishment in ________, but its close ally, the United States of America, executed twenty-three people in 2017 alone. There remain 58 countries that still practice capital punishment, with the most executions coming from China, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Pakistan, with China performing the most executions, and believed to be executing over thousands of citizens every year. In each of these countries, the death penalty is used as a harsh reminder to citizens that they must follow their government or risk death for disobeying the rules. While in western societies, the most common reason for the use of the death penalty is murder, for many countries around the world, the most common reason for executions is due to drug offenses and drug trafficking. In over 30 countries it is possible to receive the death penalty for drug-related offences, and in 13 capital punishment is mandatory. Within many of these countries, these laws were implemented with the intentions of deterring drug crimes, and that the fear of death would scare off possible offenders, however, that has simply not worked. In Iran, in 2015 from january to september, there were at least 829 executions, and 571 of those were for drug offences. This has done nothing to reduce drug crime, and an expert at Iran’s Centre for Strategic Research admitted that the death penalty has failed to reduce drug trafficking within the country. These countries have proven that there is no correlation between the use capital punishment and the rate of crimes. It is clear that in these countries, there is no justice found in the allowance of capital punishment. Furthermore, many of these countries’ practices regarding the death penalty would not be considered true examples of ‘capital punishment’, and many of them would be much closer to examples of blatant executions. However, it is difficult to fault these countries on simply their executions. Many of these countries are also known for torture, and a overall terrible prison system and unfair justice system, in addition to the death penalty, and therefore any injustice found within the use of capital punishment shown in these systems does not hold much interest, with the knowledge of the injustice within the rest of their systems.By contrast, the employment of capital punishment in one of the most developed nations that still practices it is quite intriguing. The United States of America is one of only four developed nations that still practice capital punishment, and it is considered to be the most developed nation that continues the practice. The continuation of the death penalty within America is strange compared to other developed nations, but what remains stranger is the public’s opinion of the practice. In 2016, ___% of Americans supported the use of the death penalty. While this number is the lowest it has been in forty years, it is still a very large number of people that support the execution of other citizens, regardless of their crimes. Thirty-one out of fifty states allow the death penalty, resulting in _____ executions and ______ people of death row, and only 2016 was the first year that it was not placed as one of the five countries with the most executions. This demonstrates the general public support for capital punishment within America, and how it still remains an issue where citizens are being executed.Many people believe that prisoners must be punished for their crimes, and they do not believe that prisoners can be fully reintegrated into society. The United States prison system has many issues, including the overall goal of creating more prisons to hold more prisoners, and not having an actual plan to allow criminals to re-enter society. The American system also does not allow any convict to vote at all. This mentality that prisoners cannot be redeemed transfers into the belief that capital punishment is the best solution for heinous crimes, that the only way to deal with these criminals is to take away their right to life, as they often do for others. That if someone commits a capital offense, such as murder, they deserve to receive the same kind of treatment in return. Many people believe that if someone has murdered another, they lose their right to life, and therefore deserve the death penalty. Another primary reason that there is so much support for the death penalty in America is due to the idea that it provides justice and vengeance for the victims. As many people have suffered at the hands of the murderers, they deserve to suffer as well. There is also a common belief that severe punishments will deter severe crimes. Many people believe that by having the threat of death it will deter criminals from commiting horrendous acts and reduce crime. The view is that even though a few lives will be taken, it will save more innocents in the long run. However, this view is deeply flawed. While it is good in theory to attempt to prevent more people from becoming victims, there is no proof that this has succeeded in any way. As in other countries, where drug trafficking is subject to capital punishment, official have stated that their attempt has failed in any way to deter drug crimes. The same remains true in the United States. While it is hoped that there is a correlation between murders and the use of the death penalty, in states that maintain the death penalty and those that do not, graphing this rate shows that the states have very similar trends over the years. From 1993 to 1999, they each displayed a sharp decrease in murder rates, and from 1999 until 2010 they have each displayed a near-plateau, where there rates have remained consistent. This demonstrates that the theory of capital punishment could act as a deterrent is completely arbitrary and not based on any true facts. While capital punishment has not in fact deterred crime, it is likely that prison conditions can have an effect on crime rates. Some problems with capital punishment arise from the fact that it only affects a small number of prisoners who have committed capital crimes. This means that the death penalty is only a threat to those committing capital crimes, and as such, would only ever work as a deterrent against capital crimes. On the other hand, prisons themselves affect all prisoners regardless of their personal offences. A study of prison death rates from 1950-1990.One problem within the debate regarding capital punishment is that those of the opposing do not seem to be interested in changing their opinions or perspectives. However, there have been a few notable examples of public figures drastically changing their opinions. One of the most discussed examples is Justice John Stevens. Justice Stevens served on the Supreme Court of Justice for a period of thirty-five years and during his time on the court he continuously maintained his opinion in favour of capital punishment. Only after his retirement did his initial opinion change, and he began to reconsider his view on the death penalty. Now, he has completely retracted his long-held views and determined that capital punishment has no right to continue within the United States. Within his book, Six Amendments: How and Why We Should Change the Constitution,The use of capital punishment within the United States is largely based on an ‘Us versus Them’ mentality, wherein the standard citizen tends to ‘other’ prisoners. Within the American judicial system, no convict is allowed to vote. This shows that the mentality that prisoners ‘deserve it’ is applicable through their entire prison system.