The with a frequency of 15Hz in the first


The study was approved by the Nuclear
Medicine and Molecular Imaging Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical
Sciences, shiraz, Iran (Study Code No. 1396-01-95-15022).

The study comprised 290 patients who volunteered to participate in
our study and were needed to take nuclear medicine imaging at the Department of
the Nuclear Medicine, Al-Zahra Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, from April 2016 to
October 2017.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

In the study, patients were not eligible if they have: (I) heart
problems such as atrial fibrillation (AF) etc.; (II) hearing problems; (III)
history of epilepsy. Our patients were divided into
three groups: Group I: patients who listened to the music with binaural beat
(MBB); Group II: patients who listened to the music without binaural beat
(MWBB) and Group III: patients who only wore headphones without music called the
control group. A Digital Player MP870 (Transcend, Taipei, Taiwan) MP3 player
and stereo headphones (Sony, Bangkok, Thailand) were applied to play music for
both and groups I and II. 2 min before scanning procedure, headphones were located
in both ears of the patients. We asked all patients for closing their eyes while
scanning as well. Moreover, we allowed to be inserted natural sounds such as
waterfall ocean, bird chirping, river and forest sounds. Binaural beats were
synthesized with a plain music by Neuro-Programmer version 3. The carrier tones
at 200 and 215 Hz were applied to generate binaural beats with a frequency of
15Hz in the first 3 min.

The binaural beat placed-audio with high quality was delivered into
MP3 format to apply in the group I. A simple music audio without binaural beat
was created to use in the group II. It is worth mentioning that listeners could
not detect which one is with binaural beat and which one is without binaural

before and after nuclear medicine scan, the subjects were requested
to fill the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales questionnaires (DASS-21). The DASS
measures anxiety and stress with the state subscale and the trait subscale that
the state subscale measures temporary anxiety and stress.  The DASS Inventory is a validated 21-items
self-report measure that includes measuring state of anxiety, stress and
depression. Scores for state and trait components each range from zero to 21
with a higher score corresponding to higher anxiety levels. Also, measurement
of heart rate was done before scan, in the beginning of scan and after scan.

The results of the study were represented as the mean ± standard
deviation (SD) by using SPSS 21 and

comparison between three groups was done with Fisher Exact test as
well. Univariate analysis of anxiety and stress-associated factors between all
groups (difference DASS-scores, motion artifact scales, heart rate) were
performed with Sidak analysis.