The views and an attempt to unite Italy as

The revolutions of 1820-33 signified a change in nationalistic
views and an attempt to unite Italy as one state. Nevertheless, the revolutions
in Naples, Sicily, Piedmont, Modena and Parma had all failed to abolish pre-Napoleonic
rule that had been implemented once again upon the people and widely resented by
the people of the Italian states. The reasons that the revolutions had failed was
because there was a lack of support for the revolutions, as well as a lack of communication
between revolutionaries and Austrian force against them was also a predominant
cause for the revolutions failures.

Lack of communication had proved to be very detrimental to
the cause of the revolution. Due to the lack of communication between the
states, the effect and their power overall was decreased as the groups were
unable to unite under one cause and aim – often leading to unorganised revolutions.
This is because they were frequently focused on fixing issues specific to their
region, rather than the benefit of Italy as a whole. This is prevalent when Sicily
revolted for independence from Naples as they have felt that King Ferdinand was
neglecting them since their living standards decreased drastically. Revolutions
during this time aimed for their states purpose and interest only, seen when
the government of Bologna refused to give aid to revolution happening in Modena
as it didn’t benefit them and believed it was a waste of their own resources. This
division and lack of communication had an inverse affect on the revolutions as
they eventually only became dependant on secret networks such as the Cabonari. However,
their aims were essentially different for each state and the groups had to
operate underground – without a leader, consistent aims and direction, it was
difficult to organise a nationalistic revolt that would unite Italy.

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The lack of support, foreign AND domestic, proved to be a vital
reason for the failure of the revolutions.  Domestically, support wasn’t garnered for the
uprisings as the states were divided and very easily manipulated and controlled
by the Austrians. Miniscule numbers had resulted in weakened military and political
strength, resources and influence; as they only operated in small, covet,
unorganised groups that were unable to co-ordinate themselves, linking back to
the point of the lack of communication. Furthermore, many of the members of the
revolutions were middle-class professional men, lawyers, bankers and merchants.
This had meant that these intellectual ideologies, stemming from the likes of Mazzini
and Garibaldi and Cavour, of unification and abolishment of foreign intervention
hadn’t reached the public in remote areas and peasants – therefore they hadn’t taken
part in any of the revolutions and had very little regard for it since they believed
that it only benefitted the classes above them. There wouldn’t have been much
difference to them regardless, just as it had been under Napoleon; and without
the support of the large population of peasants, it would be impossible to gain


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