The sufferers are seeking medical help. Eating disorders are

The aim of the study is to understand the connection between
eating disorders and media influences. The study aim is to investigate various
eating disorders such as Anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and Binge
eating disorder (BED), also the effects on these disorders on body image. Find
the association between an eating disorder and body image.

Derenne and Beresin (2006) have found out that media is the
powerful global effect of leading disappointments in men and women body image.
They believe that being exposed to mass media is associated with obesity and
negative body image which leads to eating disorders. They found out that eating
disorders are rising, there is an increased rate of men seeking professional
treatments and patients are being referred at increasingly at a younger age.
However, this literature mainly links on the media influences and not the
effects of eating disorders in relation to body image but finding the relation
between eating disorders, media and body image would support my hypothesis. The
limitation of this study is that the study did not show the specific eating
disorder which affects individuals body image. The merits of a study is the
study shown clear aspect of how the media affects individuals eating behavior.

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Eating disorders are not being well-known within
UK or not many sufferers are seeking medical help. Eating disorders are
increasing and is being associated with negative consequence and chronic mental
health conditions. The worldwide most common disorder is anorexia nervosa and
bulimia nervosa. According to the General Practice Research Database, the
incidence rate of anorexia nervosa was found to be 4.7 per 100 000 person
years. The main age start for anorexia nervosa is between 15 and 19 years old.
For female it is ten times more common than it is with men. The average age start
age for bulimia sufferers are around 18 years old. (Zhang & Wing, 2015)
According to Treasure (2016) young people aged between 9 and 14 years old,
found that 34% of male and 43.5% of female had eating disorder trait but fewer
than 20% of sufferers seeks for treatment. Large amount of percentage of
individuals with eating disorder did not seek help. There are various danger
signs in eating disorders such as having liver abnormalities would affect the
pulse rate, blood pressure and postural drops.

Abraham
& Llewellyn-Jones (2001) studied
that shown teenagers and young people’s eating have changes within the past 20
years. Two study have shown a linkage between the menstrual cycle and food
intake in young women. Food group such as carbohydrate, protein and fats has
been increased a day or two before they start their menstrual cycles. Many
women feel depressed, short-tempered and mix feelings before they start their
period, however this causes it to be difficult to control food.

Table
1 has shown the behaviour of 300 female teenagers aged 10-14 and 106 healthy women
aged 15-25 in percentage. The study has clearly shown that young people are
more concerned in keeping up with their body image and has lower self-esteem. (Abraham & Llewellyn-Jones, 2001)

Table 1.

 

Age 10-14

Age 15-25

Avoid eating between meals

73

78

Contributing in exercise alone

44

75

Dieting

35

55

Skipped breakfast

/

48

Avoiding consuming food (keeping busy for
distraction)

38

46

Counting calories

/

34

Weighting numerous times a day

4

15

 

The psychological term of body dissatisfaction is
phrased as “the picture of our own body which we form in our mind” (Schilder,
1950) There are various media influences during the past decades such as
magazines containing questions as “How happy are you with your body?” Within
the television features, men and women described how they wish they could be
thinner, have large breast, slimmer waist and many more. The media has
influences on the society point of view and expectation of the ‘perfect
body’.  (Ogden, 2005)

Psychometrics questionnaire has been used to
measure various aspects of eating behaviours. These are used to analyse the
level of behavioural trait in participant. For example, if emotional eating is
an important aspects of an investigation, the researchers may require their
participants to complete the emotional subscale of the Dutch Eating Behaviour
Questionnaire. The high scorers of the subscale would be considered susceptible
to eating during emotional distress. Table 2 shows the most common psychometric
questionnaire on eating behaviour. (Dovey, 2010) The participants are asked to
complete psychometric questionnaires. It is normally accepted in eating
behaviour research that the best quantitative data are derived from visual
analogue scales.

Table 2.

Original paper

Questionnaire names

What does  it measure?

Gormally et al. (1982)

Binge eating scale

Assesses severity of binge eating

Henderson and Freeman (1987)

Bulimic Inventory Test

Measures symptoms and severity of Bulimia

Thelen et al. (1991)

Bulimia Test-Revised

Measures the symptoms of Bulimia

Whitehouse & Harris (1998)

Child Feeding Assessment

Measures mealtime negativity, refusal of food and fussiness of food.

Birch et al. (2001)

Child Feeding Questionnaire

Measures parental beliefs, attitude and practices on feeding child

Van Strien et al. (1986)

Dutch Eating Behaviour questionnaire

Assesses restrained, emotional and external eating behaviour

Garner et al (1983)

Eating disorder inventory

Measures the severity of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

 

There has
been a study on the The Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and self-image disorders. There
are 217 undergraduate university students. BED is considered by episodes of
uncontrollable eating without any compensatory behaviour to avoid gain weight.
Individuals who suffer from eating disorders often show negative self –image. The
survey was the self-report questionnaires were given to the student. The
student was questioned about their age, gender, weight, height and their ideal
weight. In addition to evaluate uncontrollable eating, every participants
answered the Binge Eating Scale that was developed by Gormally, Black, Daston
and Rardin (1982) The result have shown on the BMI score is that 49 individuals
could be classed as too thin. 105 individuals considered to have normal weight
and 25 individuals as obese. 70% of individuals wish to get thinner and only
12.90% of individual are satisfied with their body weight. (Nicoli
and Junior, 2011)

Obesity is the major health problem within the
society we are living in. Body image has been determined by many factors such
as media. Being exposed to mass media such as television, movies, magazines and
internet is associated with obesity and negative body image which leads to
eating disorders. There has been a review changes in ideal female body type
through history, the comments on current attitudes toward shape and weight in
men and women, and outline intervention aimed at increasing healthy habits and
developing self-esteem. The result has shown that the ideal beauty has been
difficult to achieve and has been shaped by social context. Current mass media
is global and powerful that lead to increased body dissatisfaction along men
and women. The more children are exposed to media and encourage healthy eating
and contribution in physical activities to increase self-esteem. Parental
behaviors are being blamed in shaping children’s development. (Derenne and
Beresin, 2006)

There has been a
study on the relation between the usage of media and college woman. There has
been two variables which is the disordered-eating symptomatology and related
variables such as body dissatisfaction and the drive for wanting to be thin.
The second variable is the asses of the relation between the usage of media and
college men and their confirmation of being slim. The media usage for women has
been founded to