The into one of the pinnacle standards for a

The world recently became acquainted with Dubai several years ago through advertisements of magazines and social media.  The city of Dubai was once known for being a small fishing settlement in the Middle East but the city changed when it struck oil in 1966.  Dubai’s history can be split into two periods: before and after the discovery of oil reserves .  Today Dubai has developed into one of the pinnacle standards for a modern urban city.  Along with oil, the city also attains its wealth through its Attraction, Branding, and State-led (ABS) development model.  The development plan is strategically set to account for a multitude of unforeseen events, one being economic disaster.  The model allows Dubai to exponentially grow  as a city, since the city’s revenue comes mainly from tourism and attractions.  Dubai’s development into the city that it is today can be categorized as “little D” development.Dubai follows Adam Smith’s theory of  “The Invisible Hand” which relies on three key assumptions; propensity to exchange, division of labor that benefits everyone, and infinite expandability of markets.  In Dubai’s high-end communities, private sectors rushed to launch projects to exploit Dubai’s flourishing real estate market.  These private sectors mainly focus on high-end projects because they have the highest margin in profit.  With these high-end projects in development, the increase for job demands flourished.  “The WTTC reveals that in 2015, travel and tourism directly supported 330,000 jobs (5.7 percent of total employment). This was expected to rise by 3.8 percent in 2016 and 4.3 percent per annum to 520,000 jobs (or 7.6 percent of total employment) in 2026.” (“Tourism’s Contribution to Dubai’s Economy Revealed” 2017). These newly built high-end projects attracted new tourists creating a  constant growth in Dubai which will benefit those who are unemployed.  Foreign immigrants see the growth of Dubai as a chance to better their lives. With the creation of new projects, these people are able to escape the neighboring impoverished countries and enter a country filled with limitless opportunities.  With these increased demand for laborers, the citizens of Dubai and foreigners all benefit from the prosperous growth in the city’s development.  The growth of development in Dubai has also greatly impacted its’ market.Rapid development in Dubai’s high-end projects also expanded the market of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).  One of the most recent high-end projects being developed are Palm Jumeirah and Palm Jebel Ali.  These magnificent creations symbolize the economic spike during the mid-2000s.  Unfortunately the market of the UAE went through a crisis a year later in 2009 due to debts from the intensive property development.  Despite the crisis, the market grew by 5% in 2015 just as it did the previous year.  Some signs of the growth in Dubai’s market are the development of airports, commercial areas, and seaports which are becoming increasingly popular.  As of 2015 Dubai has entered the top 5 fastest growing economies in the world.  With business owners and private companies generating wealth and increasing the quantity of real-estate as well as innovating revolutionary technology, the city of Dubai will continue to have an impact on the UAE’s market.  “Adam Smith’s central insight remains true today: there is no greater generator of wealth and innovation than a system of free enterprise that unleashes the full potential of individual men and women.” (Obama, 2011). This quote demonstrates how the “Invisible Hand” still has a powerful influence in today’s economy.  In order to have rapid innovation and a constant generation of wealth, there must be competition amongst individuals and private companies to motivate them to unveil their true potential.  Competition plays a more significant role in development that one believes.  For example, if an individual decided to spend eight months developing an application, it means for that eight month period the individual is producing nothing. This allows other competitors to beat this them to the market.  The pressure motivates individuals or private companies to constantly develop rapidly which benefits the market.  One of the main impacts private industries have on the market of the UAE are their tourist attractions.These developmental projects produced by private companies are mainly tourist attractions, which are crucial to Dubai’s economy.  Some of Dubai’s obstacles that prevented the city from flourishing were the lack of conventional tourist attractions and the limitation on promotions.  Promotions play a vital role to Dubai’s development.  The purpose of promotion is reach out to the consumer, which happens to be the tourists.  The Dubai Corporation for Tourism and Commerce Marketing (DCTCM) is a newly fixed body that is accountable for promotions, brandings, and the emirate of Dubai.  “Responsibilities of DCTCM will also include management of representative offices in key markets around the world, whilst actively engaging commercial marketing of the emirate and its tourist facilities, resorts, products and services through advertising, event organization, festivals, exhibitions, entertainment and commercial shows, social media, digital marketing, and other means of communications.” (“Dubai Corporation for Tourism and Commerce Marketing” 2017).  The DCTCM is one of the main sources of exponential increase of promotion for Dubai.  This corporation is devoted to working with private companies and commerce partners to aid them in tourism promotions.  They also aid in improving Dubai’s position as a leading international business and leisure destination globally.  The DCTCM directive is to promote the emirate of Dubai as the superior choice for entertainment, tourism and local events in Dubai.  This corporation allows Dubai to branch out to local, regional and international companies to promote alliances for trade, with the hopes of expanding the city’s incoming travel revenue and trade.  The DCTCM’s vision is to be the prime destination for world-wide travel, businesses, and events by the year of 2020.  This vision will triple Dubai’s annual income that it receives from its tourist to 82 billion dollars.  One possible way this goal can be reached is by doubling the amount of current hotel rooms.  With the creation of the DCTCM back in 1997, it became the stepping stone of how Dubai overcame their barrier of limited promotions and lack of tourist attractions.  Along with the development of tourist attractions and the increase in promotions, the city also invests in the development on urban sanitation.The city of Dubai promotes the integrated provision of environment infrastructure which includes water, sanitation, solid waste management and drainage.  Before 2013 the city of Dubai did not possess a sewage system.  Controversy of this began in 2009 when a video of tankers filled with sewage was being transported by truck to a treatment plant was released.  “Then, ABC News reported that despite being ‘filthy rich,’ Dubai suffered from E.coli outbreaks because much of the city wasn’t connected to a sewer system.  Raw sewage was being dumped into storm drains instead of being trucked to treatment plants:” (“Dubai Doesn’t have a Sewer System” 2016).  With news reports bashing the city for its lack of effort in sanitation the city began its development in this field.  Dubai started development on a deep sewage system that stretches between Bur Dubai and Deira, with the project being completed by 2025.  With the development of this project, it will replace over 121 pumping systems for their new deep tunnels.  The deep tunnel system allows gravity to collect waste which will make the pumping system obsolete.  This will allow Dubai to retain the electricity that would have been used to power the pumping system, along with the inconvenience of constant periodic maintenance.  In addition, the tunnel system will also reduce 30% of the carbon emission Dubai produces.  The completion of this entire project will benefit the city’s sanitation dilemma, along with saving the city’s electricity and cost of maintenance.  Hussain Nasser Lootah, the director of Dubai Municipality states the completion of this project will save millions of dirhams.  This project will cost the city 12.5 billion dirhams, but this innovation will turn Dubai into a sustainable and environmentally friendly environment. In addition to the deep tunnel system, Dubai is also in the works on an Integrated Waste Management Master Plan.  The goal of this plan is to eliminate the use of landfills by the year 2030 by recycling 100% of all waste the city produces.  Abdul Majeed Abdul Aziz Saifaie, the director of Dubai’s waste management added “An integrated and innovative approach to waste management will help us attain this target.  Currently, almost 80-90 percent of the waste being generated goes to landfills.  By recycling, generating awareness among people about it, we will be able to attain this target” (“Dubai sets its sight on 100% recycling of waste by 2030” 2012).  As director Abdul stated, the only way for this goal to be reached is if the people in the city are aware of the effect landfills have on the environment.  In order to promote this and spread the knowledge, the city’s municipality started a campaign.  The campaign’s goal is to spread awareness about this matter.  The first stage of this campaign urged people to think twice about the amount of products they purchase.  This is important because too many people purchase products without the thought of where the waste ends up.  In addition to this, the first stage of the campaign spreads this awareness through schools and women organizations. Dubai’s development shocked the world with it rapid speeds. The United Arab Emirates gloats on having the second largest economy after joining the top five fastest growing economy.  Regional trading plays a key attribute to Dubai’s triumph during its rise in the economy.  Their annual trade with foreign countries benefits the city by improving foreign relations, production speeds and the overall quality of life.  The constant trade between the United Kingdom and Dubai brings in at least 9 billion dirhams, the idea of constant trading follows Adam Smith’s “The Invisible Hand” theory.  The growth of exchange amongst countries leads to rapid development, this benefits not only the economy but the lives of the citizens in Dubai.   An example, Britain’s primary export to Dubai includes power generators, transportation equipment, office machinery, and home and consumer goods.  These imports allow Dubai citizens to live comfortable lives and at the same time benefiting the city itself.  Adam Smith stated that wealth is determined by productivity, and productivity can be determined by specialization, Smith called this theory “The Division of Labor”.  The meaning of theory is when a group of people focus on one particular skill, and the group becomes the most superior in that field, production will begin to increase.  Evidence of this theory is Dubai’s commercial manufacturer, Dubai is currently the fourth largest source of production of commercial vehicles.  Back in 2015 the company Strata Manufacturing, which is located in Dubai, was offered a contract to manufacture the Airbus A350-100 Flap Support Fairings until the year of 2023.  This was a huge leap for Strata Manufacturing because it was the first time they collaborated with a foreign company, Saab Aerostructures AB.  This partnership between the companies allowed Strata Manufacturing to flourish and apply their new skills they have learned to their aircrafts that would otherwise not be possible without this collaboration.Dubai as a city, has risen from being a city in poverty to one of the greatest modern cities.  The city’s rapid development is possible through the theories that fall under “little D” development. This has been aided by theories such as “The Invisible Hand” and “The Division of Labor”.  The source of Dubai’s flourishing economy is caused by the constant rapid developments in its’ markets.  With private companies developing high-end tourism projects and aircrafts, a constant stream of revenue that allows the economy to grow can be seen and also creates job opportunities.  The theory of “The Division of Labor” plays a key part in the rapid development of tourist attractions and aircrafts, with constant development in these markets it allows Dubai to have an advantage over other foreign competitors.  Tourism specifically plays an important factor in Dubai’s development, this is why promotions are important the city. The lack promotions was the city’s main barrier, with the creation of the DCTCM it allowed the city to overcome this obstacle.  Dubai’s development allowed the city to focus its environmental issues.  The development of a new sewer system and a zero landfill plan allowed the city to remain sanitary, at the same time save money that the city would have spent on the older sewage system, landfills and maintenance.  Abiding by the “little D” development has proven the city Dubai well, and continue to benefit the city development