The main theory of crime and punishment is that the amount of time should fit the crime one has been convicted of (Hanser, 2013).The theory behind this is that the punishment is to discourage the offenders of future wrongdoings. When it comes to the Auburn and Pennsylvania systems they were both based on a belief that criminal habits were learned from and reinforced by other criminals. The Auburn system was known as the “silent system” and the Pennsylvania system was known as the “separate system”(Hanser, 2013). The Auburn system was one of the first prison models used in the 19th century. The reason for the Auburn system was to make the punishment worse by isolating them from others. This system was made because it created silence amongst the inmates(Hanser, 2013).The reason for this was to punish the inmates by teaching them habits of society and how to obey. Their methods were not for rehabilitation. This was more known as harsh punishment. As for Pennsylvania, the system is based more on solitary confinement. The Pennsylvania system was also criticized for its damage to inmates physical and mental health(Hanser, 2013). This was due to the solitary confinement. This method was cruel, impractical. It also was too expensive due to workshop method and solitary confinement.There are Four major goals are usually attributed to the sentencing process which is; retribution, rehabilitation, deterrence, and incapacitation.Retribution is when a person deserves to be punished. When the offenders restore to a constructive place in society through therapy that is called rehabilitation(Hanser, 2013).This program also helps with reforming the offender and can help prevent offenses later on. As for the Incapacitation it deprives the offenders of their liberty and removes them from society. This allows the society to be safe again. There are two types of deterrence. There is general and specific. The General deterrence occurs when observers see that offenders are punished for a given crime(Hanser, 2013). They also see that the offender is also discouraged from committing a crime. The specific deterrence is that this offender is punishment in the hope that the offender will be discouraged from committing any crimes later in the future(Hanser, 2013). Two main ethical challenges in the prison systems are corruption and isolation. Corruption is a challenge in the prison system because the Prisoners often smuggle items prohibited on the inside, such as liquor and cell phones. Sometimes leader of gangs also bribe the correctional workers to look the other way so that they don’t get into trouble. This can have a huge impact on the prison as well as cause harm to the prisoners. When it comes to isolation of the inmates can have a huge impact on there mental and physical health. This was one of the reason why Pennsylvania systems was name the most cruel punishment of all.