The influenced by several important internal and external factors

The
series of opinions, believes, judgments and individual impressions represented as
visuals or pictures by a person towards a place or a product is the concept of
image (Gibson, Zhang & Qi, 2008). The country image became an essential
topic for researchers since 1960 and these studies aimed to understand the
image of the country and its effect on the product perception and therefore on
the plan to visit and finally the buying intention (Xu, Leung, Zhang & Cai,
2015). It’s the sum of ideas that people usually associate to a specific
country (Fereira Lopes, 2011). Not only are the products of a country
influenced by the country’s image but also the touristic destinations,
attractions and sites within that country (Giraldi, Ikeda and Campomar, 2011). The
perception of a country by touristic consumers is affected the marketing strengths
and weaknesses: the concept of country’s image is also identified as a
marketing concept which its main goal is to study and collect the consumer’s
difference when it comes to their attitude toward a country or a destination
(Jenes and Malota, 2009).

Before
visiting a destination, the image of that destination is perceived and this is identified
as the primary image whereas the secondary image is the image assimilated for a
destination after the travel period: this relation is influenced by several
important internal and external factors in each country and presented in the
figure 1 (Martin and Beerli, 2004).  

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The
Country image is formed by three main elements: Cognition, affection and
conation.

The
cognitive element is the summary of all the beliefs that can be politically,
economically or socially oriented concerning a country as destination; these
beliefs have a direct influence on a touristic consumer’s behavior towards the
products and services of this country (Carter and Maher, 2011). The second
element is the affection and it’s as important as the cognitive element as it
has a mediate influence on the intention of purchasing for a consumer (Carter
and Maher, 2011): it represents the emotional and sensational reactions for
touristic consumers towards a specified country. Finally, the third element is
the conative element and it the result of a merge between the cognitive and the
affective elements: the outcome of both elements is designed as conative
element and represents the intention to visit a destination over another
(Marchiori and Onder, 2014).