The in the number, scope and complexity of disasters

The previous few decades have
witnessed a significant increment in the number, scope and complexity of
disasters and emergencies. Planning is a process; created plans have to be
examined and evaluated via practice. Helsloot and Ruitenberg (2004) give an
explanation for that the distinction between planning and preparedness comes
from the practice. Making plans must be the standard of preparedness. Alexander
(2002) described the emergency plan as “a co-ordinated set of protocols for
handling an adverse event, whether predicted or untoward, in the future”. each
emergency is specific, however with enough common ground among them it will
likely be easier to make predictions, forecasting, warning, and planning
(Alexander, 2005)).consequently, it is very crucial to attract extra attention
to emergency preparedness, and the planning process to manage, overcome and
recover emergencies (Alexander, 2005). Emergency planning and recovery can be a
notable challenge to any business, specifically hospitality industry regarding
to the more severe situation from experiencing an emergency occasion far away
from home. In a stricken destination, travelers are coming from everywhere on
the earth and communicate different languages (Stahura et al., 2012).


Disaster management in Malaysia Geographically Malaysia is out of
doors the Pacific edge of the fire and comparatively liberated from any pillage
and destruction as a result of natural disasters including earthquake, volcano,
and typhoons. However it’s subjected to monsoon floods, landslides, and
excessive haze.  Also, Malaysia experiences
from time to time some humanmade disasters which affect the hospitality
industry and cause remarkable damages to lives and properties (Shaluf, 2006).
During the period of 1968-2004 Malaysia has experienced 39 disasters, classified
as natural, human-made, and subsequent disasters, caused 1742 deaths and 2713
injuries (Aini et al., 2001; Khan and Ali, 2001). The matter raises the need
for setting up for advanced warning systems, forecast future disasters, and
effective disaster management in order to reduce the effect of such disasters
on the hospitality industry (Shaluf, 2006). In their study, Aini and
Fakhrul-Razi (2007) mention that after several disasters affecting Malaysia the
government has lunched new mechanism for disasters, and enhance the local
knowledge, specialized rescue operations by establishing the Special Malaysian
Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team (SMART), and the NSC to be responsible
about disaster management under the Directive No. 20 “The policy and Mechanism
of National Disaster Management and Relief” (National Security Council, 1997).

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The main aim of the directive is to highlight the policy on
disaster management and relief, also the roles and responsibilities of various
groups concerned in managing disasters when occurred. Also, set up
all-inclusive emergency management programs to be well prepared and insure
preparation, prevention, and mitigate the effect of disasters (Aini and
Fakhrul-Razi, 2007). in the course of the disaster, the organization of emergency
management and decision-making technique could be at 3 levels so that it will
manage the disaster effectively. the first level defined as catastrophic
natural occasions inclusive of floods, mudslides, landslides, and beach
erosion. the second level defined the human-made disasters like explosion,
pollution, accidents. at the same time as, the third level whilst a disaster
strike two or more states and the local authorities fail to respond to it by
means of their resources, the federal government will contain inside the disaster
reliefs. Furthermore, use a few foreign help if wanted