The film, photographs, and radio are considered as media

The term media, according to McLuhan (1964), refers to any extension of human lives, wherin each extension affects the perception of the individual and society. In addition, technologies, and obvious examples such as film, photographs, and radio are considered as media because they are extensions of man that affect how people view the world in which they live (McLuhan, 1964).

         According to Jensen (2002:4), media can be divided 3 different degrees. First, media of the first degree refers to socially formed resources that enable people in society to reach an understanding of reality clearly for a particular purpose and to engage with others in communication about it. At this stage of media, verbal language or speech is the main focus. Additionally, song and other musical expression, dance, drama, painting, and creative arts generally are considered as media of the first degree.

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         Second, media of the second degree, which is basically “reproduced or enhanced forms of representation and interaction which support communication across space and time, irrespective of the presence and number of participants” (Benjamin, 1936 cited in Jensen, 2002:5). Eisenstein provides examples for media at this degree including the standardized reproduction of texts that relate to religion and politics through the printing press (Eisenstein, 1979 cited in Jensen, 2002)

         Finally, media of the third degree refers to digitally process forms of representation and interaction that media reproduce. The central example is the networked personal computer due to the further development of technologies. At this degree, media is an integration of common objects and social arrangements (Jensen, 2002).

         Thus, different types of these media, according to Jensen (2002), facilitate social creation and reproduction of social systems in specific ways.