The and fought for their freedom but also American

The American Revolution not only changed the entire concept of the American Institution, but also had both short and long term consequences. Obviously, a brand new change was the declaration of independence and the establishment of state constitutions.  The Revolutionary War also had significant effects on the lives of women, American Indians and the lives of slaves, free blacks as well as the institution of slavery.  The United States became independent and free “But persistent white prejudice, sanctioned by law, limited employment options and condemned many black men and women to poverty.” (Jones, p.224)  The United States between 1776 and 1865 was usually described as a paradox nation because fighting so hard for their freedom led to their biggest problems such as enslaved African Americans, Cherokee Indians who got kicked out of their land and women without equal rights.
One of the biggest and deepest dilemmas was about slavery after the Revolutionary War.  The Constitution included the three-fifths clause, fugitive slave clause, and also had implications of the Slave Trade, but the word slave never appeared in the complete document.  In 1808, the Abolition Act prohibited the importation of foreign slaves in the United States but free blacks could not become U.S. citizens because the Naturalization Law was limited to only free white people.  
But the number of African American slaves significantly increased from the late 1700s to the Civil War due to the invention of cotton gin and the smuggling of slaves by southern planters.  The machine became very popular in the South and demanded more labor.  From that point slavery became an economic institution.  According to the Jones book, farmers had to rely on natural reproduction among slaves and on domestic slave trade.  The number of slave families significantly increased because enslaved black women were encouraged to bare as many children as they can. However, the farmers did not care about family relationship when they parceled out the work assignments, which led to resistance in many forms, including cultural expressions. 
Not only African Americans suffered and fought for their freedom but also American Indians had to fight against social inequality and mistreat.  The general policy of U.S. government was to assimilate American Indians.  A lot of tension started building up at the end of the 1700s that led to the Northwest Indian War from 1785 to 1795.  The war was between many Indian tribes and the United States and it ended with the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 that set boundary lines showing the separation of Native American and United States lands in the Ohio Territory.  
 In the early 1800s, white people in Georgia started complaining about their Cherokee neighbors because Indians were similar to European Americans. Cherokee Indians claimed to be a respected and sovereign nation.  The discovery of gold in 1829 brought white people to Indian lands and the pressure kept building up.  The president, who was Andrew Jackson at that time, decided to remove all Indians from the Southeast so towns with white people could be built.  The Congress approved the Indian Removal Act in 1830 and it provided “an exchange of lands with the Indians residing in any of the states or territories, and for their removal west of the river Mississippi.”  The Cherokee nation refused to sign the act and Indians tried to seek help from Georgia court, unsuccessfully.  Then they took their case to The Supreme Court and after a couple trials (Cherokee Nation v. Georgia in 1831 and Worcester v. Georgia in 1832) and The Court claimed the Cherokee nations a “domestic dependent nation under the authority of the U.S. government, not that individual states.” (Jones, p. 271)  When the Indian Removal Act was in effect, the tribes were forced to move west of the Mississippi River by walking in lines chained to each other that is now knows as the Trail of Tears. 
The third form of coercion existing in the United States from 1776 and 1865 was the rights of women or the lack of women rights.  After the Revolution, the most significant changes were in African American women’s lives because they were able to gain rights and marry free people or even own property in the North.  In theory, their rights were equal to white women’s rights but both black and white women experienced racial prejudice in reality.  Single, unmarried women were allowed to own a property, work anywhere that did not require a certification and be completely independent.  On the other hand, married women had no autonomy, they were dependent on their husbands hence they had no property at all.  In 1809, a law was passed that approved women to write wills in Connecticut but their hands were still tied.  One of the most important rights of married women was dower that was carried over from the colonies.  It was kind of a life estate, giving one-third of the husband’s property to the widow in case of death.  The purpose of dower was to be able to support the family after the husband passes away.  Later on, the economy in the United States was developing and expanding so rapidly that the old system of dower did not work any more, hence married women started earning similar rights to unmarried women in terms of owning properties.  In addition to that, women without property did not have the right to vote after the Revolution because they were thought to be liable to coercion by their husband.  This concept leads to a an exceptional woman, Mary Wollstronecraft who was an English writer, the first feminist and the author of Vindication on the Rights of Woman which was written in 1792.  In her book, she pointed out the problem of Tyranny and how it affects ownerships of properties.  She wanted women to transform into rational and independent beings whose sense of worth came from their self-command and knowledge instead of their appearance.  Finally, the Homestead Act of 1862 stated that the government did not make gender one of the criteria for homestead ownership. 
In conclusion, the United States between 1776 and 1865 went from earning its independence as one unit to fighting against each other in the Civil War.  In the eighteenth century the U.S. had to deal with slavery and other forms of coercion such as Indian removal and the denial of women property rights.  The three situations seemed very similar because all they wanted was liberty and rights.