taahir Clean, free of impurity.taakeed A confirmation, reinforcement or emphasis.taam Adjective meaning complete and whole, as opposed to being unfinished, planned or being delivered.ta-assuf Injustice.tabarru’ The donation paid in a Takaful insurance arrangement, similar to a premium in Western insurance but with the Shariah-compliant elements of this Islamic scheme.tadabbur Reflection in a reverent manner.tafseer, tafsir The explanation and interpretation (exegesis) of the Qur’an, carried out by a ta’wil.tahawwut Hedging, or taking care to mitigate risks by aiming to profit from an outcome that is the opposite of the desired outcome of aninvestment.tahlil The proclamation that there is no god but Allah (‘La ilaha ilAllah’).Takaful An important form of insurance throughout the Muslim world, influenced by the traditional forms of Islamic banking. Takaful is essentially a mutual insurance scheme or a co-operative, but since it must be Shariah-compliant it is based on the essence of co-operation between the members of a community, the concept that Allah will help those who contribute to the good of the community and the idea that the Muslim community is like a body, and if one part is affected, the whole body is affected. While there is a strong opinion amongst Muslims that any person in need should receive the appropriate help from his or her community (thereby making an insurance industry redundant), others argue that in the modern, globalised world, effective insurance is a necessary means of competing with the West and facilitating invention and investment. Muslims cannot use Western insurance companies for a number of reasons, the most pertinent three being the forbidding of uncertainty (gharar), gambling (maisir) and interest (riba). There are also other Shariah issues, such as the insurance companies using their collected wealth to invest in non-permissible acts and items such as pork, alcohol, pornography and weapons.takbir The phrase ‘Allah is the greatest’ or ‘God is great’, commonly heard in Arabic-speaking countries (‘Allahu Akbar’).