Sustainable namely “Sustainable economy”, “sustainable living environment”, “ensuring sustainable

Sustainable development is
being discussed by the society in recent years because people start to see the
need to work as soon as possible on solutions for the present environmental
problems as the problems are getting more serious in an exponential rate. The
increase in rate is largely related to the human activities, especially the development
of industries and economies. In this paper, sustainable development (SD) is
defined as the balanced development between economic, social and environment in
sight of not sacrificing the resources or services of the next generation. We
would like to focus on countries that have an urge to deal with environmental
problems as well as using unique sustainable development strategies to develop
or completed industrial transformation.

Singapore is one of the
developed countries nowadays that develop their economy successfully without
the high depletion of natural resources. Singapore is a small city with 719.9
km2 but densely populated by 560.7 million (as of 2016). Singapore
became independent from Malaysia in 1965. This incident has gave rise to
multitude of problems. Examples like lack of natural resources and space due to
the fact that it is a small island, unemployment of citizens because of the
lack of job opportunity, which formed a lot of slums (areas where it is poor
and crowded) in the country. Also, large part of the aqua area, including
rivers and ponds, have turn into open sewers that runs only polluted water. In
order for the country to develop in this difficult situation, the government
focused development on 4 key areas, namely “Sustainable economy”, “sustainable
living environment”, “ensuring sustainable development for our people” and
“contributing to international collaboration”.

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Sustainable Development Strategies in Singapore

 

The reality that Singapore is
running out of its own natural resources forced the country to have no choice
but to develop as a self-sufficient country. They have to produce the products
and services by themselves or import them, and also to make wide choice when
consuming those limited resources. Just like any countries in the world,
Singapore started their economic development by pollutive industries, and in
recent years they step by step switch to use environmental friendly energy soruce
to lower the pollutant emission rate. Comparing to some other developed
countries, Singapore started acting on the transformation at a earlier time. At
present, Singapore is one of the top 20 most carbon efficient countries in the
world. On the other hand, by signing the Paris Agreement, Singapore agreed to
reduce emission by 36 per cent when comparing to the emission data in 2005 by
2030. Singapore planned to introduce carbon tax system in 2019 which means
people or industries that produce much emission will need to pay for their
pollution. This policy is believed to encourage more companies to switch to use
environmental friendly energy sources and reduce pollutive production strategies.

 

On the other hand, Singapore also
worked on city planning level to design sustainable towns within the country
using smart technologies by city planners. Smart technology is harnessing information
communication technology, the interconnection of materials and human living
style and get deep insights into scientific data, so as to develop smart
applications that support the implementation of sustainable policies. Singapore implement
these technologies into different parts of
the town which carries out different functions. A country could be explained as
a human body, where green areas such as parks and countryside are like lungs
which cleans air and balanced the carbon dioxide content inside to avoid harmful
effects; roads are like blood circulation system and transport important
substances, as well as removing pollutants from parts around the body. On the
surface of the city, several types of sensors are set up which collect
different data of the current situation of the city for the town to learn and
adapt. These data help architects to design where
to put outdoor infrastructure, for example to put roof gardens and solar panels
in places with sufficient solar radiation. All this info helps architects to
design the town so that it is functional. One of the example of town developed
using smart technology is the Punggol-eco town. It is a town selected by Singapore’s
Housing and Development Board to be developed into the first eco-town in the
country. The Eco town focuses on multiple initiatives for sustainable living
through effective energy, water, and waste management. Data such as wind flow,
solar irrigation, traffic, sound and humidity are collected using specific types of instruments set in
different distinct parts of the town. At the beginning, these data help city
planners to decide where to put different kinds of infrastructure, such as
places with high solar radiation intensity to put solar panels for electricity
generation or grow plants at those area to ensure they can grow healthily. City
or town planner learn about the current situation of the town every day and
help the town to adapt, improve so to achieve higher sustainability level.

Another sustainable action of Singapore is its water
management system. Singapore’s Water Policy is also known as the ‘Four National
Taps’. They draw water from mainly four sources. The first one is importing
water from Malaysia through the Johor River. Second one is setting up 17 local reservoirs
to collect and store rainwater running through rivers, ponds, drains and
canals. The third one is highly purified reclaimed NEWater produced by treating
contaminated water to remove impurities and reuse them. The last one is by treating
seawater. Its product is also known as desalinated water. The Word Health Organization
has also recognized Singapore as one of the few countries nowadays with tape
water suitable for drinking without extra filtration process.

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