SECTION cisternal side of a Golgi ends up as

SECTION III.  Chapters
8, 10-12

1A) It would be more similar to the extracellular side because
the cisternal side of a Golgi ends up as the inner side of the secretory
vesicles. Then after exocytosis it ends as the external side of the plasma

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2A) Plasma membrane, Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Rough
endoplasmic reticulum, lysosome, plant vacuole, plasma membrane, TGN (or other
membranes of the biosynthetic pathway), and cytosol.

7A) Yes, if it were to act in a similar manner as computer
binary systems. In this case a minimum of five nucleotides would be needed to
make a codon. This is because there are 20 essential amino acids and two to the
fifth power is 32. If it were only to the fourth power you’d only have 16.

9A) A father will pass on his X chromosome if his offspring
is a female, and his Y chromosome if it is male. As such, if the telomere
studied in this experiment was on the X chromosome, a mother could pass it to
her children (son or daughter), while a father would only pass his to a


SECTION IV.  Chapters

1A) Since A-T base pairs are only joined together by two
hydrogen bonds, they are easier to separate. For this purpose, it makes it
easier to begin DNA replication.

4A) The synthesis of cyclins would take place in G1, not in
G2, because synthesis of cyclins stimulate cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdks), that
help the phase change to synthesis phase (S phase). Ultimately, G1 is about
cellular growth from the recent division and G2 is about getting ready to
divide again (go into mitosis).

6A) Without crossing over, you would end up with half of
your chromosomes from your mother and half from your father. Similarly, your
chromosomes would be one-quarter from each of your grandparents. However, crossing
over is a fairly random event where exact half and half mixes rarely take
place. It would be unlikely that the ratios would be this exact if crossing
over did occur.

9A) Immune cells such as natural killer cells (NK cells)
recognize cancer cells and bind to them. Next they use cytolytic proteins to
kill the infected/mutated cell. Cytokines such as perforins cause apoptosis by
forming holes in the plasma membrane.