Scientific literature is the main element
of all researches, as it is the only medium for stating the results of
scientific research. The basic purpose of scientific knowledge is to discover
something new or to build a new research on the basis of previous research. The
record of scientific research is available in printed or non-printed form in a
certain field i.e. Book or Journal.
literature is categorized in to two basic categories; “Primary Literature” and the “Secondary
Primary literature describes the “original research”; without any notes
or in other terms it refers to account of research which is carried out by an
individual or by a group of researchers which is published in a Peer-reviewed scientific journal. These
types of descriptions or reports commonly called “Research Papers/ Journal Papers” which are written in the
specific format and then submitted for publication.
Other than this, Primary
literature also includes Articles,
Dissertations, Thesis, Conference Proceeding papers, Video recording, Review
papers/reports, Manuscript, Extending abstracts and Patents.
Mostly the primary literature
is published in journals, but some of the researches are published as
dissertations or thesis, conference papers and reports. Let’s start to discuss
from Article first, what is actually an article is? An article is basically to explain
the methods and results of original research performed by the researcher, it
can be surveys, experiments, interviews etc. but in all situations the raw data
have been gathered, analyzed by the researcher and then propose conclusion
which is standardized., on the other hand short communication and rapid
communication are also the parts of research article. Now move on to dissertation,
it is comprehensive and detailed form of research where the researcher describes
the whole scenario in depth. Whereas, thesis is similar to dissertation.
Another important paper which is going to discussed that is conference
proceeding paper, it is presented in the international conferences, national
conferences and workshops are considered as primary literature to obtain
feedback from the audience. The video recording also use by the researchers for
recording the experiments accurately and verify their observations correctly.
Moreover the review paper/report highlights the practical aspects and also it
examines the progress in a certain topic, in short it summarizes the recent
knowledge of a topic and creates understanding and develop interest for the
reader. As far as manuscript is concerned it is unpublished version of a
research, and also it is handwritten or the original text by the researcher. An
extending abstract declares the abstract which is an extract of research means
the summary of any paper, mostly readers takes the whole idea after reading it
.Last but not the least, patents are very important for the researcher because
it is an authority or license from the government for the limited time period.
literature has several characteristics:
1. “Materials and Methods”
section and “Results”
2. Use “We” or “I” to describe what was done.
specific: mention particular places, organisms, etc.
Papers generally start with an introduction; an overview to set the stage for
Secondary literature consists on those publications which are based
on primary sources for collecting information. The purpose of this publication
is to summarizing and gathering knowledge in a specific area for other researchers,
so that they can utilize the information accordingly.
It includes textbooks, Internet, reviews, handbooks,
Magazines, Newspapers, Newsletters and
manuals. The textbook provides the
detailed introduction, identification of research objectives, research
questions, guidelines of research path, collecting relevant information,
interpreting data, analyzes data and develop understanding with the context of
research. The internet is widely use across the world as it is a big source of
gathering data and information, the secondary literature generally comes from
the past researches where the internet plays an important role for acquiring
previous papers. About the reviews, it does not show an original research, only
focuses on précising the literature. The handbooks tell the deep overview of
research methods and combines both theories and methodologies of qualitative
and quantitative. The magazines are also considered as secondary literature
because the knowledge is taken from different channels and combined at one
place. Appearance wise it looks attractive and may contains pictures and
graphical presentations, general audience is commonly use to read. Another
important kind which possess secondary literature that is newspapers, broadly
use around the world, mostly people choose to study newspaper and get
information from it, as it is supposed a good source of knowledge. Now turn to
describe newsletters, it is basically in printed form which covers the news of
business activities and send through email to all employees, customers and
people who are interested in knowing. The last thing which is also reflects the
secondary literature is manuals, it is almost the same of textbook, provides
the relevant information to the researcher, it is not only useful for the researchers
also the common people can read and take essential literature from it.
As we studied from every
aspect that the secondary literature gets from the previous papers which
contains large amount of information that can be very helpful for the newly
research papers. From the researcher’s point of view secondary literature is
the chief constituent in terms of, it highlights the purpose or aim of
conducting research, research objectives, research methodology, which type of
analysis tool will be used for testifying the results and verification of
observations. Although the secondary publications are not very much
systematized as compare to primary publications, however it is a mandatory
requirement for the paper. Therefore, the main objective of secondary
literature is to gaining knowledge for the specific area of interest.
concluded that, for the research paper; literature plays a backbone, as it is
considered a main source of information which helps to researcher for getting
past knowledge and build a new research in the specific are of interest.