Rosenzweig, Anger-Hostility, Vigor-Activity, Fatigue-Inertia and Confusion-Bewilderment). The total mood

Rosenzweig, Reibel, Greeson, Brainard, and Hojat (2003) are attentive
to the psychological well-being of medical students because they constantly confronted
with different types of stressors especially during medical training. Mindfulness
practice cultivates physiological relaxation by paying full non-judgemental concentration
to the present moment. While mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an intervention
that fully utilised formal and informal mindfulness practice. The aim of this
study was to examine the effectiveness of MBSR seminar on the psychological well-being
of second-year medical students. Hence, Rosenzweig et al. hypothesised that MBSR
will reduce mood disturbance of medical student compared with participant
without MBSR.

This was a prospective,
nonrandomized, cohort-controlled study. Participants were recruited by the self-selected method. A total of 302 healthy second-year medical students participated in the study (MBSR
group: 140 participants; Control group: 162 participants). For MBSR group, mindfulness
meditation practices were taught during the seminar and participant are expected
to practice formal daily meditation at home. Besides, participants in the control
group participated in a didactic seminar that surveys
complementary and alternative medicine on personal wellness. Both
seminars lasted for 10 weekly sessions.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

Mood or
state of participants were measured using
Profile of Mood State (POMS) with 6 subscales
(Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Vigor-Activity,
Fatigue-Inertia and Confusion-Bewilderment). The total mood disturbance (TMD) score
was calculated by totalling the 6 subscales
and weighing Vigor-Activity negatively. For each participant, the POMS was
administered during pre-seminar and post-seminar. In addition, a course
evaluation survey is given at the end of the MBSR seminar. Two statistical tests
were used to analyse the data, multivariate
analysis of variance (MANOVA) for repeated measure design and univariate
analysis of variance (ANOVA) to analyse changes on TMD score and to examine within-group difference in POMS subscale scores.

The result shows that it is statistically significant among between-group
(MBSR, control) and the changes in POMS
subscale score or some individual POMS subscale score including the TMD score. For
MBSR group, the Vigor-Activity had increased significantly whereas revealed
decreases in Tension-Anxiety and the TMD score. Nonetheless, the control group showed
significant inclined in Tension-Anxiety, Fatigue-Inertia and TMD score while
Vigor-Activity shows a decline. Next, the
effect size of the difference in POMS subscale score within groups
(effect size) is small to moderate. Furthermore, the course evaluation survey showed that participants generally think MBSR
is a good intervention and very helpful. 98% of
the participant would recommend MBSR to

Although the effect size
is small to moderate. However, this study suggested that the participants in
the MBSR group demonstrated not only significant improvement over TMD baseline
score but had notably lower the post-seminar TMD score as compared with control.
Even during a period which stress is significant among all medical students.

After all, there are several inadequate of the study
which includes the nonrandomized design of the study resulting in a significant difference in the TMD baseline score between groups. Next, unlike the
control group, the MBSR group have a daily home assignment. Besides, neither of
the groups can represent the general medical student population. Lastly, it has
been shown that the MBSR effect varies over a wide range of parameter so solely
using POMS to measure the outcome is insufficient. Therefore, future study
within medical student population should consider a wider range of outcome.    


Another study by
Shapiro, Schwartz and Bonner (1998) conducted a randomised, wait-list control
trial of MBSR in a mixed group of premedical and medical student. Although
there is no significant difference in pre-intervention score. However, post-intervention
of MBSR group reported significantly less depression, less anxiety, greater
empathy and a greater sense of
spirituality than the control. They also found that participants in MBSR group
demonstrated a relatively stable anxiety level over time but the anxiety score
of the control group increased
significantly. Therefore, both studies supported that MBSR is effective in
reducing mood disturbance of medical student as compared to the control group.

In conclusion, participants
from MBSR group reported significant improvement in psychological well-being
and reduction of mood disturbance as compared
with control group. Therefore, this study concluded that MBSR may be an
effective stress management intervention for a medical