Plant and senescence. Environmental factors such as salinity, drought,

Plant hormones
regulate plant growth and development by affecting an array of cellular,
physiological, and developmental processes, including, but not limited to, cell
division and elongation, stomatal regulation, photosynthesis, transpiration,
ion uptake and transport, initiation of leaf, flower and fruit development, and
senescence. Environmental factors such as salinity, drought, and extreme
temperatures may cause a reduction in plant growth and productivity by altering
the endogenous levels of plant hormones, sensitivity to plant hormones, and/or signalling
pathways. Molecular and physiological studies have determined that plant
hormones and abiotic stresses have interactive effects on a number of basic
biochemical and physiological processes, leading to reduced plant growth and
development. Various strategies have been considered or employed to maximize
plant growth and productivity under environmental stresses such as salt-stress.
A fundamental approach is to develop salt-tolerant plants through genetic means.
Breeding for salt tolerance, however, is a long-term endeavour with its own
complexities and inherent difficulties. Such extensive processes have delayed
development of successful salt-tolerant cultivars in most crop species. An
alternative and technically simpler approach is to induce salt tolerance
through exogenous application of certain plant growth–regulating compounds. Plant
hormones (auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, and
brassinosteroids) as well as several other plant growth–regulating substances
(jasmonates, salicylates, polyamines, triacontanol, ascorbic acid, and
tocopherols) have beneficial roles on plant stress tolerance. Brassinolide is
an important steroidal component obtained from pollen grains of Brassica
napus L. and salicylic acid is a phenolic compound obtained from bark of
willow tree (Salix sp.). Both BRs and SA are affecting plant growth and
development in many different ways. These will
assist in developing predictive models to modulate various useful traits in
plants and address current challenges in agriculture.

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