Parthenium Arlequin version 3.11 software. Nei’s genetic distance and

Parthenium hysterophorus Linn has been classified as one of the world’s most
serious invasive weeds in Africa, Asia and Australia. From its origins in the
South and Central American tropics, the weed has spread to significant parts of
Kenya causing adverse effects on biodiversity. Consequently, Parthenium hysterophorus weed has caused huge socio-economic and ecological
impacts to ecosystems in Kenya to the level that warrants some control measures.
Despite the impacts exerted by this weed on natural agroecosystems in Kenya, it
can be controlled by being utilized as a medicinal plant. Thus, the objective
of this study will be to determine the genetic diversity, medicinal activities
and phytochemical profiles of the leaf extracts of P. hysterophorus from different populations in Kenya. Total genomic
DNA will be extracted using the modified CTAB method. Genetic diversity will be
assessed using ISSR markers. POPGENE version 1.31 software will be used to
calculate genetic diversity parameters: number of polymorphic loci (N), percentage
of polymorphic loci (P), Nei’s gene
diversity (H), Shannon’s diversity
index (I), coefficient of gene
differentiation (Gst) and gene flow (Nm). AMOVA will be used to
partition the total ISSR variation into within-population and among-population
using Arlequin version 3.11 software. Nei’s genetic distance and genetic
identity will be used to generate a dendogram using UPGMA cluster analysis. The
in vitro antiplasmodial potential of P. hysterophorus extracts will be
assessed against the Indochinese-CQ resistant (W2) and the Sierra Leonean
CQ-sensitive strains of Plasmodium
falciparum using the semi-automated micro-dilution assay method. The in vivo antimalarial activity will be
tested against the mouse-infective CQ-sensitive Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain).
The in vitro cytotoxicity will be
determined against Vero E6 cells while in
vivo toxicity will be evaluated on mice through hematological and
biochemical analyses. The in vitro antioxidant
activities will be evaluated using enzymatic and non-enzymatic assays. One-way ANOVA
followed by Tukey’s HSD test will be used to determine significant differences
in the mean values obtained from different tests and treatment groups (p?0.05). The phytochemical profiles will
be determined using GC-MS method. The outcome of this study will form the basis
for managing P. hysterophorus weed in
Kenya by strengthening and optimizing its potential utilization as a medicinal