Note: Some parts are very similar because incorporated my nonsimilar parts from my old answers to my revised answers.Licsun WongYoung 2 Redo of Chapter 10 Questions:When Maryland passed an amendment that eliminated the religious “qualification” for voting, granted white men in the west to right to vote despite their net worth & worships, and state legislators nominated their own electors to electoral colleges. As a result of the expanding of voting rights, the tone of politics changed by rejected candidates who appeared to be wealthy or arrogant (wearing nice clothes and style their hair); but instead voted men who dressed plainly and supported democracy. Some changed in politics includes adding the constitution of new states and voters usually elected middling men for local state positions. Individuals holding a position in the public office came from humble backgrounds and enacted laws that prohibited imprisonment for debt, lowered taxes, and granted farmers to claim squatter’s rights to unoccupied land. By the early 1800s, states in the east became more democratic that legislative districts were based on the agreement of the population. Ever since politics was more democratic, it led to massive corruption. Van Buren deeply repudiated the original Republican belief because it saw that political factions were dangerous. Some strategies include purchasing a newspaper, using patronage and taking advantage of the spoils system and the insistence on using caucus as a disciplined way of voting. At first, Buren purchased Albany Argus, to use it for the advertisement of his policies and vacuum all the votes. And, Buren’s loyal supporters were called Bucktails, where it allowed Buren to claim victory over the New York Legislature in 1821. During his control, he appointed many of his friends to positions like legal bureaucratic judges, coroners, and deed commissioners. The third strategy was taking advantage of the spoils system, where the system would only favor one party over the other, and during the time, the spoils system favored the Republicans. The final strategy was the insistence on using the caucus to determine the votes. A crucial event that allowed Van Buren to get his votes through the hosting o the Little Magician Party. In which the party was honoring the 17 New York legislators who were willing to sacrifice their individual preferences for the general public. The five candidates running for preisdent in the Election of 1824 was John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, and William H. Crawford. All of the candidates either hold places as a secretary of something or was a general. At first, the Republicans chose Crawford as the party’s official nominee. John Quincy Adams received national recognition from his deep Massachusetts roots that secured his votes in the New England region. Henry Clay based off his candidacy on creating the American system for an economic development and he wished to strengthen the Second Bank of America and utilize tariff revenues to construct canals and roads. His improvement program attracted many voters from the west because they urged for more transportation improvements; however, Clay received backlash from the South because the South heavily relied on rivers and little manufacturing industries. William Crawford disapproved Clay’s improvement program to secure the political power in Washington D.C. Calhoun soon withdrew from the election while highly recommending Andrew Jackson, who later surged of patriotism and was present in the Battle of New Orleans. From the battle, Jackson earned his reputation of being a plain republican. But when the election results came out, no candidate managed to claim significant victory over the other, so the House of Representative would pick the president with the highest number of votes, which John Quincy Adams. When John Quincy Adams became president, he ordered the University of Washington to be established, extended the scientific explorations in the deep west, and established a uniform standard of weights and measurements. Adams endorsed Clay’s system but adapted it so that protective tariffs were to help stimulate manufacturing, facilitate commerce, control the currency, and federally subsiding the roads. The first ones enraged was the South, because they viewed the protective tariffs as useless to protective their southern industry. In response the tariffs, planters bought higher costs iron goods or American textiles, which added the duties of British imports, helping the government pay for the expenses. Some people called the tariff as some lesser legalized pillage and Tariff of Abominations. One criticism of the Indian Policy was how it supported the land ownership rights of indigenous people against expansionist whites. But in the early 1800s, the Creek National Council repudiated the treaty, claiming it was a scandal and requesting more additional negotiations. During Andrew Jackson’s campaign, he orchestrated great publicity, having around fifty New York newspapers declaring their support for Jackson, utilized large gatherings, barbeques, and torchlight parades to praise the candidate’s rise of fame. During his campaigns, he proclaimed that equality among the people in the rights bestowed by the government was the important principle of freedom. Jackson was hostile to the American System and business corporations that won him support from Northwestern artisans who felt oppressed by Industrial Revolutions and towards the indigenous Americans which heartened many white farmers looking forward to the Indian Removal. He preferred judicious tariff that would stabilize regional interest. As a result, Jackson received 178 out of 261 electoral votes and became the first Trans-Appalachian President. Jacksons had the policy of constant rotation of officials, establishing the spoils system, and voting four improvement bills. Jackson was really against the idea of property in office, where officials held permanent positions in an office. So, when an administration official was voted out, its bureaucratic appointee would be voted out, which wouldn’t lessen expertise. The spoils system was where it produced unoccupied government titles to reward his friends and win backing his policies. And in 1830, he vetoed four internal improvement bills that were an extension of National Road, votes representing an indirect attack on protective tariffs, and certain highly debated flaws of the American System. The nullification Crisis started in 1832 when high tariff congressmen disregarded the warnings given from the South that they were basically causing trouble for the Union and caused the Tariff of Abominations. In result of the crisis, Congress had to adopt an ORdancne of Nullification pronouncing the tariffs in 1828 and 1832 to be nullified. The collection of tariffs in South Carolina would then be prohibited after February 1st, 1833. (Protective Tariffs were pretty unequal). As a remedy, Congress imposed the Force Bill in 1833 that allowed the president to use force means to compel South Carolina’s obedience to national laws. When Congress secured a reduction in duties, the South Carolina convention surrendered to the government’s demand for nullification. The long-term effect was the building conflicts between the North and South, which ultimately led to the Civil War. Since Jackson abominated the Second Bank, he tried to destroy it by vetoing the rechartering bill and issuing a persuasive veto message that mixed constitutional arguments with a patriotic fervor. Jackson proclaimed that Congress had no constitutional authority over the chartering of national banks. And considering the bank as subversive of the rights of the states and a clump of privileges and monopoly of power that only promoted little improves taking a great toll on the lower class. The second reason why Jackson vetoed the bill was by suggesting that British aristocrats controlled most of the bank’s stock and such a nationally utilized facility should have a patriotic fervor. In order to destroy the national bank, he established state banks, which were called pet banks. He publicized that his possible reelection would represent the decision of people opposing the continuation of the national banks. The results were earnest back on innovative policymaking by the federal government. By the late 1820s, many Midwest and South whites strongly suggested that Indians should resettle to the West of the Mississippi River and the removal to the West seemed as the only method to shield Indian from alcoholism, financial chicanery, and eventual cultural decline. The Indians slowly grew up in a bicultural world, where adapting to the white’s economic and political ways of whites were favorable assimilation in the American Society. In order to protect their property and land, mang Indians gave in and fully assimilated into the American Society. Around the 1830s, full Cherokees occupied around ninety percent of the population and tried hard to resist the possible benefits of cultural and political innovation; however, all with the better of their ancestral land. In 1802, Georgia exchanged their land claims for federal assurance to annihilate Indian landholdings. So, Jackson sent some troops to settle the place and pushed the Indian Removal Act by evangelical Protestant men’s opposition. The Act formed some territory outside of the state for the Indians to move to and in exchange would give them promised money and reserved lands who agreed to give ancestral holdings east of the Mississippi River. But Chief Black refused to give up his ancestral holdings, and instead, started the long bloody fight but most warriors perished in the battle. The second resistance was Cherokee Nation w. Georgia, where it demanded the land to be kept, but the supreme court denied Cherokee’s independence and labeled the land of the Cherokee’s as “dependent”. Soon, government officials negotiated the Treaty of New Echota, but most people refused to move, making President Van Buren have to send troops on the 1200 mile trips. Sadly, during the trip, around 3000 people died of exposure and starvation, which was later named the Trail of Tears. The only larger group of Indians left was the Seminoles, so when the government army decided to intrude their land, they fought back and later retained their lands in Florida. Jackson’s legacy includes the expansion of the nation’s chief executive’s authority, weakened the nation economically, appointed Roger B. Taney as the jurisprudence appointee, and revised certain aspects of the constitution. When he tried expanding the authority of the nation’s chief execute, he did it by identifying it with the voice of the people. He debilitated the American System of National Banking, internal improvements, and protective tariffs and fortified Jefferson’s idea of a central government. And weakening the constitutional Jurisprudence of John Marshall by designating Roger B. Taney as Marshall’s successor, which restricted Marshall’s national view of the commerce clause by improving the regulatory role of state governments. Although it restricted Marshall’s perspectives, Jackson helped the court restore economic powers to the states. And revising the constitution that incorporated the principles of classical liberalism by restricting the government’s economic power, setting set limits on state debt being paid by the taxpayers, and having the things he wanted, regulated. The Whig party arose in 1834, opposed Andrew Jackson’s dictatorship. The Whigs associated themselves with pre-revolutionary Americans alongside with British parties that denied alternative actions of British monarchs Whigs wished a political world controlled by men of wealth and ability. Most people in the Whig Party were businessmen and wanted there be a distinction of class among white citizens. Whigs stood for federal aid internal improvements, protective tariffs, and national banking. Working Men’s Parties adopted the artisan republicanism, which was the vision leading them to join the Jacksonians to demand equal rights and destroyed chartered corporations and dominating banks. They campaigned for a more egalitarian society and workers tried to form unions to demand higher wages for themselves. The Working Men’s Party didn’t succeed since their demands were either too broad or tedious and didn’t establish a middle ground that appealed to the general public. When Jackson became president, most of the state banks received federal aid which had been withdrawn from the Bank of America. Banks issued paper money and caused crazy speculations, in which most of the speculation was upon federal lands. Jackson established the Specie Circular to drive the general payment for government lands with either silver or gold. As a result of the Specie Circular, it led to the collapse of many state banks, the fall of cotton prices, businesses declaring bankruptcies, and caused panic along with severe unemployment rates. By the early 1840s, the construction of canals plummeted by ninety-percent and values of things cut by half and the unemployment rate nearly reached the mere twenty-percent. Many local and national labor unions diminished and so did newspaper companies. John Tyler was a nominee as the Vice President of the Whigs party. The Whig’s strategy for the election was to avoid sensitive topics like slavery and collapse of banks. As for Harrison, he was the first to campaign publicly in office and had a Slogan of “Tippecanoe and Tyler too.” In which Tippecanoe represented Harrison’s military success over the Shawnee Indians in Ohio in 1811. The Whigs viewed Van Buren as Harrison’s rival because Harrison enjoyed the luxury of growing up in a wealthy family, while Buren grew up in a poor household. Due to the economic depression, Van Buren was blamed for the depression, which allowed Harrison to win his campaign. After Harrison’s long inauguration speech, he caught pneumonia a month after his inauguration speech and died a few months after. John Tyler despised the Second Bank and the American System. When Tyler dissociated himself with the Whigs, Democrats were able to recruit more members and supporters. Also, when he dared to vote Whig Bills, established new national banks, and raise tariffs, it completely outraged the Whigs. Therefore, he resigned in 1842 and people called his resignation as “his accident”. The Democrats successfully won support from Irish and German immigrants, who demanded some religious and cultural liberty. During and after Tyler’s resignation was a pattern of ethnocultural politics, where it was a practice of voting along with religious and ethnic lines.