MZUMBE of choosing most appropriate candidate for the specified


M. MUYA- 210550014/T.17





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Indicate your
understating of Human Resource Selection Process and discuss different
selection methods commonly used in filling vacant positions in work places,
while also indicating their utility in providing relevant and qualified people
to serve organizational work objectives.




Employee selection is
the process of choosing most appropriate candidate for the specified position
among the perspective candidates. It aims to select right man at the right job.
The selection process follows the optimum fit between the job and the person.
It follows recruitment but it is different in certain cases.



Selection is defined as
a process which differentiates between job applicants to filter and hire those
who can achieve greater success in the job.


The Selection process
includes filtering that ensures the selection of a suitable candidate qualified
for the position. Selection differs from Recruitment on the following basic
things. As shown on the Table 1



refers to the process of identifying and encouraging prospective employees to
apply for jobs.

  Selection is concerned with picking up the
right candidates from a pool of applicants.

is said to be positive in its approach as it seeks to attract as many
candidates as possible.

on the other hand is negative in its application in as much as it seeks to
eliminate as many unqualified applicants as possible in order to identify the
right candidates.






Resource Selection Process;

The HR selection
process is the strategically planned procedural approach developed by human
resources professionals and implemented by organizations when recruiting,
evaluating and hiring new employees. The process typically begins when jobs are
posted internally and externally. Sometimes recruiting tools are used to draw
top-qualified candidates for certain jobs.

This is a complex
decision making process, it is concerned with selection of best applicant and
rejecting less competent and less suitable applicant through large number of
applicant. There is no any fixed method and process that can be universally
applicable which guarantee for the selection of only best candidates.
Organization can follow different processes and methods as per demand and
culture of organization and types of employees to be selected. However,
selection passes through different stages as it is a process. Selection process
in general, can be explained as below.




Once the individual
qualifies the preliminary interview he is required to fill in the application
form in the prescribed format. This application contains the candidate data
such as age, qualification, experience, etc. This information helps the
interviewer to get the fair idea about the candidate and formulate questions to
get more information about him.

In most of the
organizations, the selection program begins with preliminary interview or
screening. In some places if an applicant appears in person, an impromptu
preliminary interview may be granted.


Once the applications
are received, these are screened by the screening committee, who then prepare a
list of those applicants whom they find suitable for the interviews. The short
listing criteria could be the age, sex, qualification, experience of an
individual. Once the list is prepared, the qualified candidates are called for
the interview either through a registered mail or e-mails.

Employers face a number
of human resource challenges. Recruiting the right employee for the right job
is one of the most critical challenges, and that task has become more difficult
with a global economy and very mobile workforce. Employers can no longer rely
solely on candidate interviews to make a sound hiring decision.

 Pre-employment screening is a process that
allows employers to verify information such as education, and prior job history
and performance. In addition, the screening process reveals important
information about a candidate’s prior behavior which can help an employer
assess potential risk posed by the candidate. Prior behaviors can include
substance abuse, credit history and bankruptcy, driving records, and criminal
convictions, and civil litigation.

Contribution of Screening

better Candidates which lead to better employees

Employers who utilize
pre-employment screening as a part of their recruitment process realize a
number of important benefits. One of those benefits is a general improvement in
the quality of applicants which ultimately leads to better workers, higher
productivity, increased quality, and lower employee turnover. Simply announcing
to all applicants the intention to conduct background checks will discourage
some candidates from applying.

in Non-violent Employee Misconduct

Another benefit
provided by pre-employment screening is a reduction in non-violent employee
misconduct in the workplace. Non-violent employee misconduct can include theft
of company or customer assets, fraud, drug possession or solicitation, and
identity theft or other confidential information abuses. In addition to the
obvious financial impact, these acts can result in lost customers, deflated
employee morale, and organization brand and image destruction.

in Risk of Negligent Hiring Litigation

Negligent hiring is a
legal theory under which employers are held responsible for injuries caused by
their employees if the employer failed to take reasonable care in the
employment selection process. The employer can be held liable even if they did
not know about the employee’s history if it is determined that they should have
known. An employer may be found liable if the employee injures a co-worker,
customer, or member of the general public even if the employee is not acting
within the scope of their job duties when the injury occurs.


The preliminary interview is also
called as a screening interview wherein those candidates are eliminated from
the further selection process who does not meet the minimum eligibility
criteria as required by the organization. Here, the individuals are checked for
their academic qualifications, skill sets, family backgrounds and their
interest in working with the firm. The preliminary interview is less formal and
is basically done to weed out the unsuitable candidates very much before
proceeding with a full-fledged selection process.

an interview is generally planned by large organizations for short listing the
potential candidates in order to cut the costs of selection by allowing only
eligible candidates to go through the further stages in selection. A competent
executive from the Human resource department may elicit responses from
applicants on important items determining the suitability of an applicant for a
job such as appearance, age,education,training, experience, pay expectations,
aptitude, interests, choice etc. this courtesy interview as it is often called,
helps the department screen out obvious misfits. If the department finds the
candidate suitable, a prescribed application from is given to her or him to
fill submit.


Selected candidates
from preliminary interview are required to appear in written examination. On
the basis of level of job, nature and responsibility and number of applicants,
different types of selection tests can be used. Intelligence, test, personality
test, attitude and interest test, professional test, personality test are some
common selection tests which can be used on the basis of nature of
organizational need. From this process, whether the candidate is suitable for
organizational objectives or not, can be judged. Skills and qualification
required for the job are judged from selection tests. If minimum expected
quality is not maintained, candidates will be rejected.

Individuals differ in
many respects including job-related abilities and skills, in order to select a
right person for the job, their abilities and skills need to be equally
measured. That is done through selection tests. A selection test is a device
that uncovers the information about the candidate, which is not known through
application blank. They can measure certain abilities, aptitudes and skills
that provide objective information how well the applicant can be expected to
perform the job.

of Selection Test

Aptitude Test: Learning capacity

Intelligence Tests: Reasoning, verbal,
number, memory

Achievement Tests: Theoretical and
practical knowledge

Situational Tests: Situational problems

Interest Tests: Likes and dislikes of

Personality Tests: Relationship,
Talkative, Reliability, Self-confident

Honesty Tests: The “Polygraph” a lie
detector mechanical device that measure honesty of the candidate. Reduce losses
and Employee theft

of Selection Tests

Predict Future Performance: A well
designed test can predict future performance of an individual.

Unbiased Tool: Standard, Eliminate
biasness in selection process.

Measure the Aptitude: Psychological test
measure the aptitude of candidates and predict their success.

Basis for Comparison: Test provides a
reliable basis for comparing applicant’s ability.





The one on one session
with the candidate is conducted to gain more insights about him. Here, the
interviewer asks questions from the applicant to discover more about him and to
give him the accurate picture of the kind of a job he is required to perform.

Also, the briefing of
certain organizational policies is done, which is crucial in the performance of
the job. Through an interview, it is easier for the employer to understand the candidate’s
expectations from the job and also his communication skills along with the
confidence level can be checked at this stage.

of Employment Interview;

Interview verifies the information
provided by candidates during the application.

It helps to get some additional
information which may have not been included in application form.

It helps to know the attitude of
candidates towards job and organization

It helps to known the interpersonal
communication skills, situation adaptation skills, problem solving skills, etc.
of candidates.

It helps to share the organizational
working procedures, culture, tradition and working environment.


6.      Reference Check;

Reference check is a process of
getting information about a person from his previous employers, his schools,
college and other available sources. Through reference checks, the organization
confirms the information given by the individual during the job application,
and the organization verifies information like education, work experience,
family back ground, personal identification. This is usually done by the
employer before hiring a job applicant.

Some of the Main Purposes of Reference Checks are;

To verify the correctness of the information
provided by the applicant in the resumes, application forms and during

To check if the applicant has any criminal
background or history.

To check if the applicant has right skill set for
the job and if he fits well in the organization.

To identify any patterns (desirable or undesirable)
of behavior of the applicant during his tenure with previous employer.

To identify the developmental needs and determine
the appropriate initial training and development programs needed when the
applicant is newly hired in the organization.

To know the applicant’s previous behavior and to
estimate success in his new job.

Reference checking is also done by the current
employer when assigning a new project which deals with more sensitive
information of the client, or when client mandates it. For Example: Bank
related projects.

Contribution of Reference Checking;

The best indicator of future performance
is a candidate’s past performance, and his former employer is the best source
of this information.

Employers get additional information on
the candidate’s performance, behavior, attitude and other traits, which makes
the hiring decision, smoother.

Employers can avoid hiring an
undesirable candidate with timely information through reference checks, and
save their company from undue risks or harm to other employees.



A pre-placement or
pre-employment examination is a medical assessment provided by a company. The
examination serves two functions which are to determine an applicant’s ability
to perform a specific job and to provide a baseline medical status against
which to evaluate any occupational illnesses or injuries that might arise
during employment. It may include a physical examination, vision test, hearing
test, pulmonary function test, electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, blood tests,
urinalysis, and drug testing. Job applicants may be required to be screened for
drug and alcohol use prior to being hired. Employees may be tested for drugs or
alcohol in the workplace, where permitted by the law. The physician must
determine if the applicant can perform necessary job functions despite any
medical condition he or she may have.

Contribution of Medical

and Fit Workforce

A medical exam enables
employers to recruit workers with qualifications that should increase
efficiency. Physical fitness and health are requirements you need to join
strenuous fields such as firefighting. The applicant must go through a medical
test that will determine whether your heart, lungs, eyes, ears and limbs are


This is most used in
law enforcement careers require applicants to go through psychological and
emotional pre-employment medical exams. These exams are vital in establishing
you do not have underlying mental problems that may lead to misuse of your
power as a state security officer with a duty to protect the citizens. As an
applicant for law enforcement jobs, your psychological examination process must
be handled by a licensed professional.



A drug- and
alcohol-free workplace helps reduce carelessness that may result in injuries or
death, especially in businesses that involve the use of machinery.
Pre-employment medical examination procedures used in screening the use of
illegal drugs and alcohol can help you avoid these problems.

8. Final Selection

the candidate who qualifies all the rounds of a selection process is given the
appointment letter to join the organization.Thus, the selection is complex and
a lengthy process as it involves several stages than an individual has to
qualify before getting finally selected for the job.



This essay has set out
the current recommended best practice in respect of recruitment and selection.
It has illustrated the complexity and resource intensive nature of the process,
and also emphasized the importance of prior planning and preparation to ensure
that the most suitable candidates are shortlisted for the role, and that they
have the necessary skills and attributes. As has been discussed throughout the
essay, there are a number of alternative methods for actually selecting a
candidate for the job role, and the determination of which of these methods is
used relies on the specifics of the job itself and also the long-term HR and
human capital requirements of the organization. In an ideal scenario, the
recruitment and selection process is cross-functional in nature, involving both
HR and department heads, and is also linked to the long-term strategic
requirements of the business. Throughout the entire process it is imperative to
maintain fairness and transparency, and to focus on recruiting the best
possible candidate in order to reduce the possibility of subsequent employee