maa-ul economies such as GDP, GNP and unemployment. It

maa-ul mushtaraa?Water that
is purchased.

macroeconomics?The study of
entire economies, be they national, continental or global. Factors taken into
account are the major ones affecting economies such as GDP, GNP and unemployment. It is in contrast
to microeconomics, which is concerned with much smaller-scale economic study,
at business or household level, for example.

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madh’hab, madhab, madhhab?The
generic term for a Sunni school
of Islamic Law or jurisprudence. Although
there have historically been many madh’habs, the four which are by far the most
long-lasting and followed are the Hanafi,
Hanbali, Maliki and Shafi’i. They are all
named after their founders (Abu
Hanifa an-Nu’man ibn Thabit, Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Malik ibn Anas al-Asbahi and Imam ash-Shaf’i).
The schools all share the same basic beliefs, but differ only in slight
interpretations and traditions, which can be as ‘insignificant’ as how many
times a certain line is recited. They are not so different as to be considered
alternative sects or factions, and the schools have existed in harmony since
their foundations; indeed, the founder of the Shafi’i school was instructed by
the founder of the Maliki school.

Madinah?The Arabic rendering of Medina, a city in
modern-day Saudi
Arabia, home to Al-Masjid al-Nabawi
(the Prophet’s Mosque), which houses the Prophet Muhammad’s tomb. It is therefore
considered the second holiest place in Islam (the holiest being the Ka’bah in Mecca).

madrassa, madressah, madrasah,
madrasa?Literally, madrassa is the Arabic word for school,
which can mean to an Arabic speaker any school in any nation, secular or religious.
However, it usually has the implication of being a religious school, especially
from outside the Arabic and Islamic
sphere.

maghrib?The salah (prayer) which
takes place just after sunset.

Mahdi, Mehdi?The Islamic redeemer, who will
visit the Earth a certain length of time before the Day of Judgment, accompanied by Jesus, and right the
world’s wrongs. Depending on which tradition is followed the duration of his
stay will be seven, nine or 19 years.