Livestock FeedFeed accounts for 65-70 per cent of the total cost of production and maintenance of the animals. There is a direct relation between the nutritional status of the animals and the type of feed fed. For getting the best results, feeding of animal needs planned, scientific, practical as well as economical approach.Livestock feeds are generally classified as roughages and concentrates (Figure 1). Roughages are further classified into green fodder and dry fodder. Green fodder is cultivated and harvested for feeding the animals in the form of forage (cut green and fed fresh), silage (preserved under anaerobic condition) and hay (dehydrated green fodder). The estimates of fodder production in the country vary widely. Fodder production and its utilization depend on various factors like cropping pattern followed, climatic condition of the area as well as the socio-economic conditions of the household and type of livestock reared. The cattle and buffaloes are normally fed on the fodder available from cultivated areas, supplemented to a small extent by harvested grasses. Figure 1: Classification of Livestock FeedThe major sources of fodder supply are crop residues, cultivated fodder and fodder from common property resources (CPR) like forests, permanent pastures and grazing lands. At present, there is huge gap between demand and supply of animal feed and fodder. The country faces a net deficit of 35.6 percent green fodder, 10.95 percent dry crop residues and 44 percent concentrate feed ingredients (IGFRI, 2012). The increased growth of livestock particularly that of genetically upgraded animals, has further aggravated the situation.Table 1: Area under Fodder Crops in Gujarat and India (2000-01 to 2013-14) (Area in million hectares) Year Gujarat India Area under Fodder Crops Gross Cropped Area % cropped area under fodder crop Area under Fodder Crops Gross Cropped Area % cropped area under fodder crop2000-01 1.09 10.44 10.5 9.20 185.34 5.02001-02 1.10 10.73 10.3 8.70 188.29 4.62002-03 1.05 10.63 9.9 6.08 174.11 3.52003-04 1.08 11.42 9.5 8.70 189.67 4.62004-05 1.03 11.26 9.1 8.03 191.12 4.22005-06 0.96 11.49 8.3 8.07 192.76 4.22006-07 0.90 11.81 7.6 8.21 192.41 4.32007-08 0.90 12.11 7.4 8.20 195.14 4.22008-09 0.90 11.65 7.7 8.53 195.36 4.42009-10 0.90 11.14 8.1 7.47 192.20 3.92010-11 .82 12.25 6.7 7.77 198.97 3.92011-12 .85 13.09 6.50 7.81 195.69 3.992012-13 .85 12.60 6.75 9.25 194.14 4.762013-14 .85 12.49 6.81 9.83 200.86 4.89 Source: Ministry of Agriculture, GOI The problem of feed and fodder is regional in nature. It is more acute in arid and semi-arid environments where crop failure is frequent. States such as Punjab and Haryana have surplus rice and wheat straw. The green fodder availability in northern hilly area of India like Upper Gangetic Plains and Eastern Plateau and Western Himalayan region is more than the actual requirement of fodder for livestock. Dry fodder availability is also found to be more than requirement in the Middle Gangetic Plains, Upper Gangetic Plains, Eastern Himalayan, East Coast Plains and Hilly Zones. The regional deficits are more important than the national deficit, especially for fodder, which is not economical to transport over long distances.