IV.SECUTIRY etc., All these public networks need to have


In the present era various number of
applications are relying on internet such online shopping , stock trading,
internet banking, digital bill payment etc., All these public networks need to
have the end to end  connection in a
secured manner which should also be confidential in order to ensure data
authentication, confidentiality ,availability 
integrity as well as accountability.

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As per NIST  computer security can be defined as the
protection afforded to an automated information system in order to attain the
applicable objectives of preserving the integrity ,availability of
confidentiality of information system resources(inclusion hardware, software,
firmware ,data /information and tele-communications)

Security is the process of protecting
the services and information from an unauthorised access, modification or
distruction . In networking the security can be obtained by using cryptography (one
of  science and art) is  of 
transforming the messages  so that
they can be protected by attacks.

Encryption is one of important mechanism which can ensure the security of sensitive
information. The  encryption algorithms
are classified into two groups: symmetric key(secret key) and asymmetric
key(public key)579

Symmetric key: it is also known as conventional encryption is a form of cryptosystem
in which encryption and decryption performed using same key57 9

Asymmetric encryption : In which encryption and decryption
are performed using the different keys 
ie., public key, private key.5 9



data communication encryption plays a major role to secure the data. The
encryption algorithms714 used in cloud computing are

1.Symmetric encryption algorithms:

                In this method sender and
receiver use a single secret key which is used to encrypt and decrypt the
messages. Some of the encryption algorithms are

Encrytpion Standard): It is a symmetric key algorithm used to encrypt
the information. It was developed by IBM in 1975. In DES algorithm block cipher
is of 64bits and key is of 56bits. Now a days this algorithm is insecure for
lots of applications.514

Data Encryption algorithm): It is developed to overcome the flaws of DES
without  designing a new crypto system. It
was developed by IBM in 1978. 3DES extends the key size of DES by applying the
algorithm 3 times in succession with 3 different keys. The combined key size is
thus 168 bits( 3times to DES(3*56)).TDEA uses three 64bit keys K1,K2,K3 in
Encrypt-Decrypt-Encrypt(EDE) mode. 3DES is slower than other block cipher

Encyrption Standard): Is one of the new encryption standard recommended
by NIST to replace DES in 2001. AES can support any combination of data
(128bits ) and key length of 128,192 and 256 bits. During encryption and
decryption process AES goes through 10 rounds for 128 bit keys, 12 rounds for
192 bit keys and 14 rounds for 256 bit keys to deliver final cipher text. The
draw back of this algorithm is difficult to implement.57

a symmetric key algorithm designed by Bruce Schneier in the year 1993. It is a
basic algorithm developed an option to DES algorithm to  overcome many problems that come with many
other algorithms. This algorithm is available in public domain. And can be
available to free to every one.7.The key size is 32-448 bits and 16 rounds.

Cipher):  Is a symmetric key algorithm.
Mainly known for its simple execution. This is developed by Ronald Rivest in
1994. The speed of algorithm is slow comparative to other algorithms


2.Asymmetric Algorithms:

                These  are public key algorithms which generally
make use of different keys for encryption and decryption. These algorithms are
most important because these can be used for transmission of encryption keys.

a) RSA
(Rivest-Shamir-Adeleman): Is the most simple and common asymmetric
algorithm used for both encryption and decryption of digital signature. It has
fast encryption key.514. . It was developed by Ronrivest,Adi shamir,and
Leonard Adleman in 1978.

b) DSA :  It is an important algorithm for
processing the digital data. It was given by the NIST in the year august 1991.

c) Diffie-Hellman : Is the earlier
asymmetric data standard algorithm developed in the year 1976. This algorithm
most widely used   key exchange algorithm14




Cloud computing provides an enormous benefits of cloud services and
resources in various fields. However cloud security issues remain the major
obstacles  that may prohibit the adoption
of cloud computing on a large scale.  Security
engineering is one of the best practices to provide the best methods and
techniques for developing systems and services which are built for security, sustainability
and resiliency. In this paper the  overview of various  security threats, attacks with solutions, security
issues , challenges , risks and   some of the encryption techniques were


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