Introduction: reduce the level of pollution that Earth has


Environmental pollution is one of the
major problems of the world and it is
increasing day by day. In Pakistan, it created an alarming situation in past few years. Pakistan is
experiencing very imaginable environmental pollution. It is affecting not only humans but
also other species as well. The population of Pakistan is increasing constantly.
The population growth, unfortunately, has many bad effects, one of which is the
pollution problems.

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Pollution has become one of the most debated and hot topic of all times by global citizens because of its dangers
effects on this Earth. Globally speaking, pollution problem is much more
complex and bigger than we knew.


is a very serious issue and took everyone to prevent and reduce the level of
pollution that Earth has suffered. It is impossible
to solve this problem without the help of
all global citizens. Everyone has to play its role to eradicate this major


to Oxford dictionary, the definition of pollution is the presence in the air, soil, or water of substances with
unpleasant or harmful effect. Pollution is the process of making the
environment, land water and air dirty by adding harmful substances to it. This
has threatened the survival of all forms of life.  The pollution growing seriously when human
undergoes evolution in technologies. The population of our planet is increasing
constantly. The population growth, unfortunately, has many adverse effects, one
of which is the pollution problems. Pollution not
only damages the environment but effects humans being also. Environmental
pollution is a serious problem in the
industrialized societies.

has led to urbanization. The migration from rural areas to the cities in search of work has created an unhealthy
environment. It has led to overpopulation and establishment of slum areas.
Towns and cities are full of smoke, dirt,
dust, rubbish gases, foul smell and noise.

explosions and nuclear tests also poison the air. The spread of radioactive
materials into the air has increased. This radioactive pollution may cause
cancers, abnormal births, and mutations
in men.

Environmental Pollution occurs when
pollutants contaminate the surroundings; which brings the changes that affect normal lifestyles unfavourably.
Pollutants are the elements or components of pollution which are generally
waste materials. Pollution disturbs our ecosystem and the imbalance the
environment. Modernization and development in our lives, pollution has reached at its top; giving rise to global warming and
human diseases.

are many types of pollution, namely air, water, and
noise pollution.

Air pollution
is caused by the emission of toxic gases from vehicles, factories, and open burning. Nowadays, there are more and
more vehicles on the road as society gets more affluent. More and more people wish
to have a better quality of life by having the convenience of driving to their
destinations instead of taking public transportation. Automobiles provide transport to millions of people around the world to enable them to travel to
their workplace, school and other places, therefore, the air around us is
getting more polluted by the carbon dioxide that is emitted. Pollution
from cars, trucks, and other vehicles is
and has been our major environmental pollution issue for almost a century now.
The problem is we did not realize this until the problem had manifested to
monumental proportions.


Water pollution
is also a problem that we are currently facing. Every
living being depends, directly, on water so this has taken a heavy toll on the
entire living population. Other than direct dependencies, more than 60% of the
species live in some form of water. Thus water pollution is another major type
of pollution that needs to be curbed. The oceanic life is the
first to suffer from water pollution as they depend on the nutrients in the
water to survive. As a result, we are robbing
the beauty of the sea and unique species
of fishes. Besides ruining our oceanic heritage, the disappearance of marine
life will affect the livelihood of fishermen, not to mention our source of food.
Water pollution is caused by harmful waster from industries, farms and sewerage
systems which are dumped into our sources of water such as rivers and lakes.

Many industries dump wastes
into rivers, lakes, ponds, and streams in an attempt to hide wastes from EPA
inspectors. These water sources feed major crops and food becomes contaminated
with a variety of chemicals and bacteria, causing rampant health problems.


Noise pollution
is another form of pollution. Noise from heavy machinery and vehicles can cause
hearing problems and in excessive cases, deafness. As there is growing number
of vehicles on the road, we are exposed to noise pollution every day. The
government in advanced countries encourage their citizens to take the public
buses and trains by providing an affordable and efficient transportation system.(Kelishadi, 2012)








Automobile Emission: The
smoke emitted by vehicles using petrol and diesel and the cooking coal also pollutes
the environment. The multiplication of vehicles, emitting black smoke
that, being free and unfettered, spreads out and mixes with the air we breathe.
The harmful smoke of these vehicles causes air pollution.

Ø Combustion
of Coal: The combustion of fossil fuels pollutes
the air, the soil and the water with noxious gases such as CO2 and CO.

Ø Wildfire: Wildfire
is also the main cause of air pollution.
Giving fire to the forest to destroy them
is result in pollution that is a danger
to living beings.

Ø Power
Plants: The coal burnt in a power plant causes
lots of toxic gases. The power plant provokes smog, acid rains, the greenhouse
effect and holes in the ozone layer. It provokes health problems (cancer), and
the air pollution makes the air not good to breathe.


Ø Factories:
Industries have been polluting our environment since the beginning of the
industrial revolution, as mentioned above, due to the increasing use of fossil
fuels. The dirty water consists of many dangerous chemicals is mixing with our
drinking water and causes of serious diseases.  Coal has been using
for many years for different coal
projects. Industries are mainly caused of
air pollution, soil and water contamination can also occur. This is
particularly the case for power-generating industries, such as electricity
producing plants. (May be a dam, a
nuclear reactor) Also, the transportation of this energy can be harmful to the

Ø Pesticides
and fertilizers: Agriculture is mainly responsible for the
contamination of water and soil. This is caused by the largely use of pesticides, as well as by the demanding character of
its production. Almost all pesticides are made from chemical and are dangerous
to a human being as well as animals.
However, by keeping these forms of life away, harm is almost always made to the
surrounding environment as well.

Furthermore, as agriculture gets more and more
intensive to feed the increasing world population, more environments and
ecosystems are destroyed to make space for the crops.


Ø Traffic
Noise (Horn): Ever since men left animal power to travel, pollution
of the environment has become higher and higher. Its levels have only been
increasing until now. Similarly to industries, pollution caused by transport
can mainly be attributed to fossil fuels. Indeed, humans went from horse
carriages to cars, trains, and airplanes. As the traffic is increasing every
day, pollution is in the same way.

Ø Machinery: Industrial
activity, can be a highly noisy operation. In
metal fabrication, the cutting, shearing, pressing, and riveting of metal
products can be very noisy.




Effects :

Environmental pollution has
negatively affected the life of both human-beings and animals. Almost all of our
gains in the fields of industrial progress, science and technology had so far been realized at the cost of our health.
Even our flora and fauna were found to be threatened with extinction.

All this really leaves us
wondering if all our achievements and industrial civilization really help us
climb the peaks of prosperity or simply take us down the blind alleys of
adversity. It is not only in India, but
all over the world – even in Europe and U.S.A. – that the question is being
raised whether all is well with our industrial growth and progress in the field
of science and technology. Many crusaders against environmental pollution are
vehemently protesting against the indiscriminate violations committed daily in
the name of development.

The environmental pollution is
not caused by the fall-out from nuclear tests or industries alone. The smoke
left behind the automobiles and other vehicular traffic, the increasing use of
synthetic detergents, nitrogen fertilizers and insecticides contaminate both
air and water.

The water we drink the
vegetables are all contaminated to-day. As a result of this contamination
our world is afflicted with a quite a number of incurable diseases.
Environmental pollution
affects water sources which mean that there is less fresh water available
for drinking, washing, cooking and irrigating crops.
Nothing in this world is
immune, no life is safe and the future of this world is bleak.
The factories are mostly
built in populated areas and the smoke-emitting vehicles ply through the
congested areas. Besides causing immense disturbances, there are
increasing case of pulmonary tuberculosis and thrombosis and various sorts
of brain and heart complications.
Air-pollution may cause
severe lungs-diseases, asthma, brain-disorder diseases, etc.
Soil-pollution may have
negative effect on farm output ratio. It can also contaminate the ground
have negative effects on hearing or auditory sense organs. It
can also cause deafness, tiredness, and mental losses.
The heat generated by
industries and vehicles causes thermal pollution by raising the
environmental temperature of the nearby areas.
Many scientists believe that
we are living in an era of mass extinction, due to human made
environmental pollution.

The birth of mills and factories
is the result of the growth of industry in this machine-predominated
age. As long as they will be there, they must emit smoke, pollute the
air and hasten our end by slow-poisoning.




Environmental Effect:

temperature has risen:
significantly over the years. The
protective atmosphere is further being polluted by methane gas released from
melting icecaps. This is causing rampant weather issues around the planet.

Human Health:

Air Pollution:

are the some diseases caused by Air Pollution:

lung functioning, Irritation of
eyes, nose, mouth and throat.




Water Pollution:
Following are some common diseases
caused by water pollution:



vomiting, and stomach


Noise Pollution:


in Communication




Review of

Environmental pollution
is reaching worrying proportions worldwide. Urbanization and industrialization
along with economic development have led to increase
in energy consumption and waste discharges. The global environmental pollution,
including greenhouse gas emissions and acid deposition, as well as water
pollution and waste management is considered as
international public health problems, which should be investigated from
multiple perspectives including social, economic, legislation, and
environmental engineering systems, as well as lifestyle habits helping health
promotion and strengthening environmental systems to resist contamination.


pollutants have various adverse health effects from early life some of the most
important harmful effects are perinatal disorders, infant mortality,
respiratory disorders, allergy, malignancies, cardiovascular disorders,
increase in stress oxidative, endothelial dysfunction, mental disorders, and
various other harmful effects. Though
short-term effects of environmental pollutants are usually highlighted, a wide range of hazards of air pollution from
early life and their possible implication on chronic non-communicable diseases
of adulthood should be underscored. Numerous studies have exposed that
environmental particulate exposure has been linked to increased risk of
morbidity and mortality from many diseases, organ disturbances, cancers, and
other chronic diseases. Therefore it is time to take action and control the
pollution. Otherwise, the waste products from consumption, heating,
agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation, and other human activities
will degrade the environment.


Based on the strength
of the scientific knowledge regarding the adverse health effects of
environmental pollution and the magnitude of their public health impact,
different kinds of interventions should be taken into account. In addition to
industrial aspects, the public awareness should be increased in this regard.
Likewise, health professionals have an exclusive competency to help for
prevention and reduction of the harmful effects of environmental factors, this
capacity should be underscored in their usual practice.


This special issue is
dedicated to increasing the depth of research across all areas of health
effects of pollutants in the air, water,
and soil environments, as well as new techniques for their measurement and
removal. The goal of the special issue is to familiarize the readership of the
Journal of Environmental and Public Health with the potential for different
aspects of environmental pollution. We expect this special issue would appeal
to researchers, public health practitioners, and policymakers. (Kelishadi,

          The man, along with all other living beings from the
beginning of its existence is closely linked with the entire inanimate and
living nature that surrounds it. This interaction is the basis of the whole
modern right of environmental protection. Through his own development, the man
developed his interest in the way and manner that would harmonize with the
nature that surrounds it, to ensure the conditions necessary for their
survival. With each new discovery (ranging from tools for tillage and wheel all
the way to modern computer technology) man makes a bigger part of the eternal desire to reconcile nature and its
needs. Contemporary urban, industrial, economic and technological development
has provided great bene?ts to man, but the industrial air and water pollution,
uncontrolled deforestation and their conversion into agricultural land,
destruction of the ozone layer and global warming of the planet followed by
climatic changes, the accumulation of various wastes, including radioactive as
well as the eradication of certain plant and animal species, are just some of
the negative consequences of human activities, which, however, seriously
endangering his own survival. At present time, the protection of the
environment is of great importance in the prevention and elimination of these contradictions. The right
to protect the environment today should be seen as a unique supranational
(international), national and local unit.
Therefore, in order for the normative framework to succeed, actions must be
taken at the universal, national,
regional and local levels. Today we can say that we live in a world of waste,
because of population growth and production
increasing amounts of waste that makes land are becoming more numerous and
increasingly degrade the environment.
Every day a huge amount of waste, equally as in the villages and in
agricultural areas is produced. Every year, about 10 million tons of oil products reaches rivers and oceans and has more
than 500 billion tons of industrial waste. Industrial facilities and transport
throw into the atmosphere about a billion tons of aerosols and ash. At the land, waste is collected for years. In the wildland reaches up to 70% of total waste. The
biochemical processes of decomposition of waste adversely affect the
environment. As for municipal waste that contaminates the soil and plants, air,
groundwater and surface water on them in huge quantities reproduce rats, mice, and insects, which contributes to the spread of
infection. This new situation poses a threat to human health, for both present
and future generations. This imposes the problem of protecting the environment
through waste management. The composition of waste is very different and
includes municipal solid waste, industrial, and agricultural, medical,
electronic and other wastes of mixed composition. A particular problem is a hazardous waste (chemical, biological and nuclear) with a strong polluting effect
and the many negative consequences for human health and the environment. In the
early 90s of the 20th century in developing countries, there are 100 – 330kg of
solid waste per capita in the European Union, the number was 414, and in North
America 720kg. The global problem of all countries of the world is that there
is an increase of waste, both in the amount of waste produced, as well as the
amount of waste per person. The big problem is that this waste is not
processed, instead, it is disposed of in
land that is huge and located in the
vicinity of cities and represents a
dangerous pollutant. (Ibro Skenderovic, 2015)

Water pollution in urban Pakistan results from the
uncontrolled release of domestic,
agriculture and industrial effluents. There are three main source
bacterial and organic liquids and solids from domestic sewage, toxic metals,
organic loads, acids, and other less-toxic but still polluting substances
from  industrial discharges; and chemical
pollution in the form of pesticide and fertilizer run-off from agricultural
lands. All three causes the contamination of both surface ground-water supplies
and both directly and through food chain can causes serious damage to human. (Khan,
M. (1996).

It is no longer new but we still need to
understand fully the nature
significant development within our own continent. Over the past quarter
Asia and Southeast Asia have been the fastest-growing region. Real per ca
incomes have quadrupled; the percentage of people suffering from absolute
poverty has fallen from a third to about a tenth; and human development
indicators have considerably improved. All this while the industrial growth and
transformation been rapid! Between 1965 and 1990, industrial production in the
region grew at average rate of 10 percent per year. But rapid growth was
accompanied by an equal rapid expansion in energy and resource consumption,
industrial and vehicular pollution, and hazardous and ordinary waste
generation. In only 15 years of industry transformation, per capita energy
consumption trebled in Korea, and it rose by factor of 2.5 in Taiwan, Thailand,
and Indonesia. Private vehicles grew 40 times Korea and 20 times in Taiwan. In
Thailand, in only 10 years, sulphur dioxide emissions rose by a factor of
two-and-a-half while solid waste-generated pier cap increased by over 50
percent. The shift in economic structure away from agriculture has somewhat
surprisingly been accompanied by a worsening, rather than improvement, in
agriculture-related pollution problem. Agriculture’s ability support a rapidly
growing urban population was derived from crop intensification involving heavy
application of fertiliser and pesticides. The agricultural run-off contributed
to water pollution with nitrates, phosphorus, and certain other toxic chemical.


Solutions and Suggestions:

Environmental pollution
is one the greatest challenges that the world is facing today. It began since
the industrial revolution, increasing day
by day and causing irreparable damage to Mother Earth.

We must work together
to reduce pollution so that the future generations can live in a healthy,
unpolluted environment. As the saying goes, precaution is better than cure.
Lets hands on hands together by recycle and conserve the world for the better

To protect the environment from the adverse
effects of pollution, many nations
worldwide have enacted legislation to regulate various types
of pollution as well as to mitigate the
adverse effects of pollution.

Gas emission pollution
is being mitigated in a variety of ways
with car emission control, electric and hybrid vehicles and public
transportation systems. Not all major cities have successful
implementation and decent public transportation in place, but the world is
working on this issue constantly and we have managed to reduce emissions
profoundly over the last decade. There is much catching up to do.

Solar power is a fantastic solution. Now that solar radiation is at a climactic peak,
we can reap power from the sun using solar panel systems. These range from home
systems to larger scale systems powering entire communities and cities.

        To tackle this problem, the government needs to educate the masses on
the dangers of deforestation and the importance of planting trees. The mining
activities are supposed to be controlled so as to prevent the problem from
escalating. People need to be taught on the best farming processes that will
render the soil vulnerable to erosion. Gabions could also be built in areas
that are adversely affected by the problem of erosion.