INTRODUCTION processor that relating to sensation(sensory memory ,short-term(or working)memory,



           ‘ Memory’
is a word that describes how brain and mind 
stored, maintained and research for the informations. (Baddeley, A., & Jarrold, C.
(2007). pg 2)Memory is extremely important and necessary for
experiences  and get involved in limbic
systems,it is the act of keeping information over time for the future action ‘s
influencement.(Lauralee Sherwood (1 January
2015).pg112)Memory is always interpreted as a nature of information
processing system that expressed in a way that is not only has very clear and
direct functioning but also has functioning without being openly stated.It is
composed of a processor that relating to sensation(sensory memory ,short-term(or
working)memory, and long-term memory. (Baddeley, A., & Jarrold, C. (2007).pg205)But memory is not a
perfect processor that it  is influenced
by many factors.Such as when new information is adding or creating stimulation
then the amount of information which have been stored or encoded before would
definitely be influenced and would decrease the amount.This could lead people
to lost part of their old memories.(Eysenck, H. J. (2012).pg93). The sensory processor permit
information from the outside world to be perceived in the form of chemical and
physical incentive and pay attention to with several levels of concentrate and
purpose. (Baddeley, A.,
& Jarrold, C. (2007).pg203)

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How memories are processing



Types of memory


1.Sensory Memory

Sensory memory is
holding the information after its appearance of one second. For example, when
people are watching TV or movie , they will concern all the static pictures
that appeared one after the other as movement; when people look at things, they
won’t disturbed by the blink of eye and eye movement.Sensory memory is the
beginning of the memory process.The storage time is about 0.25 ~ 2 seconds and
besides that it also has a distinct iconicity.If these sensory information are
getting further attention then it will process into into short-term memory, on
the other hand, they will disappear soon.George Sperling conducted the very
first experiment and research of sensory memory. (Sperling, G. (1963). pg4)At
present,  the feeling of visual Memory
called image Memory (Lconic Memory) and auditory sense of Memory called the
Echoic Memory (Echoic Memory).


the information is
completely according the physical properties of coding that belong to the
objects of feeling.

the storage time is very
short.Visual sensory memory (Lconic Memory)is about 0.25 ~ 1 seconds;Listening
sensory memory (Echoic Memory) is about more than 1 second, but also no longer
than 4 seconds

The capacity of sensory
memory is  considered for 9 ~ 20 letters
or object


2.Short-term Memory

Short-term memory (or
“primary” or “active memory”) is the capacity for holding,
but not manipulating.The most important characteristics of short-term memory is
the keep time of information is quite limited.Under the condition of without
repeat, most of the information in short-term memory stay time is very short
and usually  it’s in the 5 to 20 seconds,
the longest would not exceed 1 minute.Short-term memory is sometimes called the
phone number memory, as people make a call immediately after they find a phone
number on the words, the number will soon forget.If people want to enter
the  information of short-term memory
into long time, they must be conducted to repeat those information  According to retell 3 to 12 experimental
results of the random Numbers table, find that information after one time
render , participants can increase the maximum amount of memory, short-term
memory capacity is generally 7 plus or minus 2 units.Young children’s memory
span more limited, usually 4 + 1 unit.(Miller, G. A. (1956). pg4) Memory span is related to people’s
processing in the material coding.If the material of memorization is meaningful
and linked with people’s general life and people feel familiar about it then
memory span will increase.


  the information in the short-term memory stay
time is very short and has limited capacity

 the save time is usually
in the 5-20 seconds, the longest would not exceed 1 minute

Short-term memory’s capacity is generally 7 plus or minus 2


3. Working Memory

            Working memory refers to a system of
limited capacity, is used to temporarily keep and store information, the
interface agent between perception, long-term memory and action.  therefore it is a foundation of support structure
thinking process. It  play an important
role in many complex cognitive activities.Working memory is the storage of information in the human
brain activity. In the cognitive activity, because of the need, certain
information in long-term memory have to be sent out, the informations is
active.The information is  only temporary
used by people , and after people finish the usage of the information ,it would
return in to long-term memory again .When information is in such state of the
activity, is call working memory.This kind of memory is easy to be erased and
could be replaced at any time.

A., & Jarrold, C. (2007). pg


  it is based on the voice of the voice ring,
is  mainly used to remember the order of
the word, keep information.

is based on  the image processor, is
mainly used for processing of visual and spatial information.

is based on the processor that similar to the attention of the central nervous
system, is mainly for the distribution of attention resource

 control process   is the key element of the working memory.


4. Long-term Memory

Long-term memory has
the ability to keep memories for  a few
days to a few years. It differs from the working memory and short-term memory
that only stay for a few seconds to a few hours. In biology, short-term memory
is the temporary strengthening of neural connections, and can be turned into
long-term memory after consolidation. In addition, the short-term memory is
mainly composed of acoustic code, but long-term memory is mainly composed of
meaning code.Its information mainly from the contents of the short-term memory
recall, there are also some impressive content in the perception could be
one-time printing into long-term memory , especially those exciting in highly
emotional experience content can be directly be stored into long-term memory
system. Through the study on mice ,it found that long-term memory and
short-term memory are formed at the same time, but only long-term memory once
molding then it will fall silent.?Kitamura, T., Ogawa, S. K., … & Tonegawa, S. (2017) pg 3 )Based on
the multiple memory systems theory of Tulving, long-term memory is divided into
implicit memory and explicit memory. Implicit memory is the memory that cannot
be expressed in normal consciousness, but 
the memory can be measured by some methods .And explicit memory can be
divided into declarative and procedural memory. Declarative memory also
includes semantic memory and episodic memory.Procedural memory is the memory
about how to do one thing.Declarative memory is the memory on certain specific
things and situations.Semantic memory is the memory of general knowledge about
the world and the law.Episodic memory is the memory about events and situation
in a certain time and space.?Tulving, E. (1987). pg74?


long-term memory  keep
memories for  a few days to a few years.

it is mainly about meaning code

Its information mainly from the contents of the short-term
memory recall

Information stored in long-term memory would not be realized by
people if people not intentionally recall the memory.