Introduction or urban use are also examples of deforestation.Tropical



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Eutrophication or more
precisely hypertrophication, is a water body enriched with
nutrients,with an excess amount of it.Certain nutrients are needed for survival of the
living thing.Primarily,nature is efficient enough to provide right amount of
nutrients,not less nor too much. This is absolutely true in aquatic ecosystems
because they are so dynamic.Water will be oligotrophic if there is too much
Consequently,serious problems will occur if there is no nutrients in the
aquatic environment of the organisms.However,
problems can also occur when there is too much nutrients too. When this occur
we get eutrophication. A eutrophic stream, river or lake occurs when too many
nutrients,such as nitrogen and phosphorous, are present, usually as a result of
overflow of the land. Algae, plankton and other microorganisms attracted to these
types of nutrients, and when they are too much these aquatic organisms can take
over. When eutrophication occurs in a lake, river or other aquatic system,it
gives a negative impact on the organisms itself including humans,birds and


Clearing of trees or removal
of trees from the forest to make it into non-forest is called deforestation and
it is also used for urban development.Conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use are also examples
of deforestation.Tropical rainforests are the most common
deforestation area.One of the largest and severe issue in global land is none
other than deforestation. Croplands and grazing lands are estimated area
regarding deforestation which includes cutting down trees for wood products and
so on due to urban usage.Due to this,whole forest is no more and wiped out due to
no more trees left in the forest. In some cases,forest structure would be
altered if illegal logging and so called accidental fire occurs.The practice
of slash-and-burn agriculture is
the major contributor for deforestation.Small-scale farmers clear land produces
for only a few years and then must forests by burning them and then grow crops
in the soils fertilized by the ashes.In
Southeast Asia such as Indonesia, tropical Africa, and the Americas for
permanent oil palm plantations practice
open fire burning to clear out the forests.



c) Global Warming

observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth’s climate system and
its related effects called Global warming commonly known as climate change,The increase of average world temperatures as a result of
what is known as the greenhouse effect is global warming too. In
greenhouse,certain gases in the atmosphere acts like glass, sunlight is allowed
to heat the earth’s surface but it radiates back to the space if we trap the
heat. The Earth gets hotter when the greenhouse gases build up in the
atmosphere.Consequently,this phenomena is called climate change.Since
the mid-20th century the Scientist have gathered detailed observations of
various weather phenomena
(such as temperatures, precipitation,
and storms) and of related influences on climate (such
as ocean
currents and the atmosphere’s chemical composition).
Earth’s climate indicated that it has changed
over almost every conceivable timescale since the beginning of time and that
the influence of human activities
since at least the beginning of the Industrial
Revolution has been deeply contributed to the climate

d) Ozone depletion

Ozone is very important
and crucial to us and gives us the pros and cons.As
a result of many chemical reaction regarding air pollution which caused by
heavy traffic and UV light formed ozone near the ground which eventually caused
a lot of respiratory problems particularly for children and the elderly.However,the stratosphere, ozone
filters out incoming radiation from the Sun in the cell-damaging ultraviolet (UV)
part of the spectrum are known as high up in the atmosphere in a region.Life on
earth would not have evolved in the way it has without this ozone layer. Single-celled organisms such as algae that make up
the bottom rung of the food chain inhibits the reproductive cycle of
phytoplankton with the help of extra UV B radiation shone onto Earth.The only
thing fears the Biologist is that reductions in other animals due to low number
of phytoplankton..Excess ultraviolet B.Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals
found mainly in spray aerosols heavily used by industrialized
nations for much of the past 50 years, are the primary culprits in ozone layer
breakdown which ultimately causes the change in the reproductive rates of young
fish, shrimp, and crabs as well as frogs and salamanders.UV breaks down into substance
such as chlorine due to CFC in the upper atmosphere exposed to UV.Chlorine
reacts with the oxygen particle and tears down the ozone.


When pollutants contaminate the natural
surroundings; which changes our normal lifestyles quickly is called pollution.Our
ecosystem and the balance in the environment are disturbed due to pollution.
Pollution occurs in Different forms of pollution can be found such as air,
water, soil, radioactive, noise, heat/ thermal and light.There are two sources
of pollution occurrence; the point and the non-point sources.The non-point
sources are hard to control whereas the point sources are easier to
identify,monitor and control.Firstly,Air pollution is a contamination of natural air with dangerous
gases.It is one of the major contributor to environmental
pollution.  Land pollution occurs due to excess of dumping of toxic
waste. This can be a chemical or other waste material.Sound pollution
called as noise pollution is a disturbance of silent environment with
loud noises.Radiation
is the pollution due to abnormal radiation in the environment. This occurs due
to use of radioactive elements from atomic energy stations.Thermal pollution
arises because of excess heat from thermal power plants,
industries involved in metal molding.Water pollution is mainly about
harmful toxic substances thrown by ignorant humans or released as residue by
irresponsible companies.In other cases,ships release their unwanted oil into
the sea.

f) Acid deposition

Any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, elevated levels of hydrogen ions
(low pH) is known as Acid
deposition.Plants, aquatic animals and infrastructure had negative impacts due
to acid deposition.Emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react with
the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce
acids is called acid deposition.Wet and dry are the two types of deposition.Rain, snow, fog, hail
or even dust that is acidic are included in the type of acid deposition.Dry deposition consist of acidic
particles and gases from atmosphere in the absence of moisture.During
atmospheric the acidic particles and gases may deposit to surfaces (water
bodies, vegetation, buildings) quickly or may react to form larger particles
that can be harmful to human health. This acidic water flows over and through
the ground, and can harm plants and wildlife, such as insects and fish when the
accumulated acids are washed off a surface by the next rain.The amount of
rainfall an area receives depends on the  amount of acidity in the atmosphere that deposits
to earth through dry deposition.For instance,the ratio of dry to wet deposition
is higher than an area that receives several inches of rain each year in the
desert areas.

Causes and why it happens

A) Eutrophication

Fertilizers (nitrates
and phosphates)

Ignorant human actions predominantly causes Eutrophication.Nutrient
accumulation consists of agricultural
practices and the use of fertilizers on lawns, golf courses,
and other fields. Surface runoff into lakes, rivers, oceans and other surface
waters washes away these nutrients with high concentrations of phosphorous and
nitrogen when it rains, photosynthesis activity of the hungry plankton, algae
and other aquatic plant life increases and well fed.Dense growth of algal
blooms and plant life in the aquatic environments are the consequence of this.

animal feeding operations

Phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients and Concentrated animal feeding
operations (CAFOs) are the main contributor for eutrophication. The nutrients are
normally discharged through animal feeding that finds way into rivers, streams,
lakes, and oceans whereby accumulation occur in large quantity with recurring
cyanobacterial and algal blooms plaguing the water bodies.

sewage discharge and industrial waste into water bodies

water is directly discharged into water bodies such as rivers, lakes, and
oceans in some parts of the world, especially the
developing nations. As a result, it stimulates the dense growth of algal blooms
and other aquatic plants which threatens survival of aquatic life in many ways
due to the newly introduced high amounts of chemical nutrients.

The sewage water may also be treated by some countries,but it is still
discharged into the water after the treatment. Causing of the accumulation of
excess nutrients, ultimately bringing about eutrophication,as much as the water
is treated. Similar outcomes are present when direct discharge of industrial waste water into water bodies.



Natural events

Floods and the
natural flow of rivers and streams are natural events which can prevent excessive
growth of algal blooms by washing away the excess nutrients off the land into
the water systems.Accumulation of sediments as well as phosphorus and nitrogen
nutrients which contribute to the explosive growth of phytoplankton and
cyanobacterial blooms will occur as lakes grow old.