One of the most frequent cancer-related deaths is Colorectal Cancer (CRC), Its fourth in globally, reported with 1.4 million (9.7%) cases worldwide 1,2. In Saudi Arabia, CRC for men the most common cancer type and women the second most common 3.
Cytokines, chemokines and growth factors are small soluble proteins that mediate and regulate immunity and plays a role in the cancers including CRC. The production of these soluble proteins by a tumour itself 4,5. In biological ?uids, i.e. serum or plasma and tissues are undetectable generally because of the concentration of these proteins is very low. Growth factors concentration is an increase in cancer development including CRC6. Here, we will discuss the following growth factors are; preoperative serum epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in CRC patients.
The prognostic role of preoperative serum Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) in colorectal cancer patients has not previously reported 7. Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), a peptide growth factor can promote proliferation, motility, morphogenesis, and angiogenesis in many types of cells, including various tumour cells 8-10. The concentration of HGF in the serum or cancer tissue of cancer patients and the progression of disease has reported. This relationship is in patients with solid tumours including CRC 11-15. A possible role for preoperative serum HGF as a potent predictor of prognosis in CRC patients16.
In regulating tumour angiogenesis, the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) family plays a significant role. VEGF induces cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration of vascular endothelial cells 17. There are ?ve structurally related VEGF ligands: VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and placental growth factor (PlGF) 18. Furthermore, raised preoperative VEGF serum levels shown to associated with decreased disease-free in patients with CRC 19. However, tumour angiogenesis and preoperative VEGF serum levels are not used in the clinical practice because they have not been able to improve the prognostic value of tumour stage 20.
All CRC patients and controls were Saudi Arabian, gender- and age-matched, and recruited after physical examinations and diagnostic exclusion of cancer. Serum derived from CRC patients used as the test samples against the control samples from the serum of the healthy donors. The growth factors may represent targets for directed therapy approaches and allow discrimination of sera derived from CRC and in early diagnosis.
In this study, we explored the pro?le of preoperative serum-vital growth factors of soluble proteins EGF, HGF, VEGF using magnetic bead-based Luminex Multiple Analyte Profiling (xMAP) technology and mRNA expression.