INTRODUCTION of the operation through a combination of force,

INTRODUCTION                                                               1                                                                                                                                       

2.                                 LITERATURE
SURVEY                                                  3

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3.                                
METHODOLOGY                                                              4

                                    3.1 Need of
Virtual Surgery                                                4

                                    3.2 Virtual
Surgery in details                                              5

                                   
3.2.1Virtual Reality                                                              5

                                    3.2.2
Virtual Reality Simulation                                         6

4.
                                APPLICATIONS OF
VIRTUAL SURGERY                   8

5.                                 IMAGE GALLERY                                                             10

6.                                 ADVANTAGES AND
DISADVANTAGES                      12

7.                                 CONCLUSION                                                                   
13

                                    REFERENCES                                                                   
14A
virtual surgery is a computer-assisted surgical procedure simulation intended
for training and preparing doctors for actual procedures. T The
result is a sophisticated simulation in which the user can both see and feel
the virtual surgery to a realistic degree.

Most
virtual surgery procedures utilize a combination of computerized tomography
(CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to create an in-depth three-dimensional
model of the organ and the patient. The combination of scans allows surgeons to
see both the surface and interior of theThe term virtual surgery was coined by JARON LANIER
in 1980’s. Since the VS system has undergone a tremendous change in terms of
usage and adaptability. The oldest virtual surgery lab has been situated in Oregon
state medical university which was set up in 1990.

. VR provide good
tool to experiment the various complications arise during surgery. 

Organ
at all times. Motion sensors attached to the operating tools simulate any
action taken towards the virtual organs, allowing surgeons to manipulate the
image as they would during an actual surgery. Haptic technology devices, on the
other hand, simulate the physical experience of the operation through a
combination of force, motion, and vibration based on the surgeon’s movements.
All these elements combine to allow a surgeon to “touch” a virtual
organ, manipulate it, and feel the results.As this system
shows and also points out mistakes, the aspiring surgeons can always learn from
their mistakes 
gives a new clinician a chance to mess up with a virtual patient (and
learn from it) rather than messing up with a real patient.

 As the touch enabled simulators used in virtual
surgery system allow users to practice their skills on computers without the
use of costly cadavers, it’s quite cost effective.

With
the use of force feedback system these systems combine the visual and factual
information with a sense of touch which gives the feel of operating on alive
patient.

Research
by Yale university medical professional shows that surgeons trained with
virtual surgery perform 24 pc faster than ordinary surgeons.

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter
4

VIRTUAL SURGERY IN DETAILS

It is a virtual reality technique of
simulating surgery procedure. It helps surgeons in improving surgery plans. They
practice surgery process on 3D models. Virtual surgical tools or gloves are
connected to motion sensors where the users can physically feel the difference
in simulated tissue and organs.

The virtual surgery
works, when the patient come  in for
procedure, they get scanned and a 3D dimensional double is generated  With processes like MRI scan ,CT scan the
process of making a virtual double of you starts. Then after using processes
like VR environment and simulation the process proceeds. Then taking standard
human measurements of male/female body the simulated image is brought to life. Various
complex software’s, real-time fluid dynamics theory and SensAble pvt. Technology’s
GHOST software’s are needed to move into the final image.

 

 4.1 VIRTUAL
REALITY

Virtual reality is
a generalization of the standard visual simulation paradigm where the model and
actions used in the simulated world are extracted from various sensors and information
retrieval system. The resulting visual simulation aims at an exact
representation of the real world. With VR space we can navigate, interact, immerse,
and feel the presence of the actual material world. It reduces the need of
physical prototype and improves product ergonomics and functionality. And the
most appealing part is that it can present everything in three dimensions.

 simulators more
life-like. Virtual Reality Simulators consist of program run the software to
interact with virtual environment. The addition of haptics to virtual
environments has provided computer users with the ability of expression in
multiple dimensions.These force feedback systems provide the user
the same resistance or reaction from the VR environment as it would have
provided in an actual environment .Otherwise known as haptic devices, these are
commercially produced by PHANTOM pvt. Limited, USA .The haptic devices offer
higher fidelity, stronger forces and lower friction to the practicing surgeons.
Without these force feedback systems the virtual surgery program would have
become just like a video game .These 
devices reproduce the feeling of moving and manipulating the surgical
tools within the patient’s anatomy and the flexibility to tailor the tactile
experience.

 •     
virtual reality models enable the use to perform a
procedure countless times which help the surgeon to strip away various
layer of  tissue and muscles to examine
each organ separately, which result in a error less surgery.

•      text book images or
cadavers for the training purposes. Today cadavers are limited in
supply and generally allowing one time use only, so this virtual
surgery technology is becoming a training method of choices in most
medical      school.the ability for a
doctor to perform surgery on
a patient even though they are not physically in the same location. It is a
form of telepresence. A robot surgical system generally consists of one or
more arms (controlled by the surgeon), a master controller 

 

 

 

4.2VIRTUAL REALITY Sdepending upon this
simulation needed anatomical images can be derived from series of patient’s MRI
or video recording, which are 2D images. Images are segmented and constraints
are imposed. Then we construct a reference model. After that obtain final model
by deforming the reference model.·        
Doctors can practice
with these programs before doing the surgery on live patient.Chapter
7CONCLUSION

Medical
virtual surgery has a long way to go in the coming era. The use of computer
aided and image guided technique has helped a lot in the advancement of   medical science.