In the issues or events and the degree to

In addition, agenda setting is also important because of how it
relates to priming. Priming refers to the phenomenon that the issues that
people judge to be important often become the criteria by which they evaluate
politicians (e.g., Krosnick & Kinder, 1990). Meaning any factor affecting
public agendas has the possible potential of affecting politically relevant factors
such as a president’s approval.

Agenda setting and priming concern the issues that are on
people’s minds. Framing, in contrast, is concerned with presenting the issues
or events and the degree to which the nature of that presentation can affect or
had affected people’s opinions about the issue. In the word of Druckman’s
(2001), “A framing effect occurs when in the course of describing an issue or
event, a speaker’s emphasis on a subset of potentially relevant considerations
causes individuals to focus on these considerations when constructing their
opinions” (p. 1042).

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Druckman (2001) has dedicated an entire line of research that qualifies
claims about the popularity and force of framing. In one study, he found that
the credibility of the media source matters in how effective a frame can be. For
example, information that is presented as coming from the New York Times had a
much greater effect than the same information when presented as coming from a
lesser known source called the National Enquirer. This shows to the larger
point that one shouldn’t speak about media effects in general terms. Rather,
one should think about the effects of specific types of information, when presented
in certain ways, by a certain source, to a specific audience, and also under
certain circumstances.

Another important point to consider, especially in regards to framing,
is that frames seldom have monopoly status (Nelson & Kinder, 1996). If one
party or candidate frames an issue in a certain way, the opposite side will
likely try to find a different way to frame the issue, which just might be
equally or more compelling. This of course then forces people to balance these different