In norms.By writing about American truths and values, Mark

In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain uses symbolism to express the concept of freedom, which America was founded upon. Lorraine Hansberry uses characters like Walter to spread the idea of dreams being deferred, and emphasizes the struggle between joining societal norms or creating your own path. James Baldwin uses both brothers to depict the difficulties people continuously face to survive in the world. “Harlem” by Langston Hughes provides detail to build a foundation of equity and equality. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn provides a sense of foundation for American Literature, which authors progressively began to write about. The foundation led to writers like Hansberry, Baldwin, and Hughes arguing that freedom is unattainable when following societal norms, which leads to human suffrage. Instead of following societal norms, these authors believe in creating your own path and following your own dreams. Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn speaks to us as Americans because America was founded on the idea of freedom, which Hansberry, Baldwin, and Hughes use to encourage people to create their own path instead of following societal norms.By writing about American truths and values, Mark Twain uses the raft and the river to symbolize freedom and rescue-two strong American values which speak to all American writers. Disturbed after seeing Buck’s dead body, Huck heads for Jim and the raft, and the two shove off downstream. The scene on the raft is set in juxtaposition to the harmful feud between the Shepherdsons and the Grangerfords. For several days, Huck and Jim enjoy the peacefulness of the river as they again navigate the raft at night and go into hiding during the day. Through Huck’s peacefulness on the raft, Twain proves that one can only find peace by isolating themselves from society and their constraints. Though the food Jim cooks is nothing out of the ordinary, Huck thrives off of it. Huck says, “there ain’t nothing in the world so good when it’s cooked right … We said there warn’t no home like a raft, after all … Other places do seem so cramped up and smothery, but a raft don’t. You feel mighty free and easy and comfortable on a raft” (116). Huck is nourished from the food because of the atmosphere he’s in. The freedom and relaxation Huck feels while on the raft is incomparable to anywhere else in the novel. Huck only feels the peacefulness while on the raft because he’s away from society and its constraints. The raft brings to light the corruption and hypocrisy on the shore in opposition to the life on the raft where peace and harmony prevail. The raft has come to symbolize freedom, equality, and hope for Huck and Jim. Despite the care and concern from Widow Douglas, Huck views the raft to be his home. The raft represents the utopian lifestyle they are pursuing to find. They view the raft as home because there’s no constraint from society.  Huck expresses how society makes him feel “cramped” through all the immoral rules. Huck is also more relieved when he’s away from society and their rules. Ironically enough, the raft is an actual small boat. However since it is not as restrictive as civilization is, Huck feels more comfortable. Mark Twain uses the river to symbolize freedom in its purest form. “Sometimes we’d have that whole river all to ourselves for the longest time. … and maybe you could hear a fiddle or a song coming over from one of them crafts.  We had the sky up there, all speckled with stars, and we used to lay on our backs and look up at them, and discuss about whether they was made or only just happened” (Twain, 118). The power of the river forces and aids Jim in becoming a free man and also forces them to adjust to the will of nature. Not only does the river offer freedom to both Huck and Jim, but it offers them work and the dignity of self sufficiency. The river gives Huck and Jim the space to bond as two human beings who do not have to be constrained by a strict racial hierarchy. The obstacles faced by Huck and Jim leads to their freedom, which continues to be displayed by other American authors. Hansberry, Baldwin, and Hughes all argue that it is nearly impossible to find one own’s freedom when following societal norms, leading to human suffrage. Mr. Lindner and his neighbors see the Youngers’ presence in the Clybourne Park neighborhood as a threat to their way of life. Mr. Linder offers the Youngers’ extra money in exchange for them not moving in the Clybourne Park neighborhood. He says, “‘Well – I don’t understand why you people are reacting this way …  moving into a neighborhood where you just aren’t wanted … when they feel that their whole way of life and everything they’ve ever worked for is threatened'” (Hansberry, 119).  His bribe to persuade the Younger family not to move into the all-white neighbourhood does threaten to pull the family apart by challenging their value base. Here we see the direct racial discrimination the Youngers’ face. The entire premise of moving is based on the idea that their lives can be made better with a change of where they live. Challenged by Linder’s racism, the aspirations for something better and the hopes of the Younger family in a better tomorrow is directly opposed by racism. Racial discrimination and the hurdles that come along with it represent the challenge to the family’s ability to dream. The way Linder is portrayed and what the Youngers have to endure, Hansberry makes it possible to construct a greater meaning on what it means to dream. Since racial discrimination threatens it, the ability to dream is something praised precisely. People’s dreams could not be fully recognized due to the racial discrimination in the 1950s into the 1960s, which is why racial discrimination gives greater meaning in the play. In illuminating this with the Younger family, Hansberry is able to construct a narrative in which the power to dream is something that might be threatened by racial discrimination, but through the will of the Younger family, is not denied because of it. Imposed on him by the outside world, Sonny in “Sonny’s Blues,” finds it difficult to passively accept the suffering and pain caused upon him. In fact, Sonny attempts to assert control over his suffering by finding a reason for it. He says, “‘No there’s no way not to suffer. But you try all kinds of ways to keep from drowning in it, to keep on top of it, and to make it seem—well, like … ‘why do people suffer? Maybe it’s better to do something to give it a reason, any reason” (Baldwin, 1950). To Sonny, music sets him apart from the rest of society and its constraints. His soul is often tortured from society’s limitations and discrimination, and his only relief comes from facing the pain in the music that he plays. He finds his peace of mind from the music he plays, which goes against his brother’s views, which Baldwin uses to depict society’s views. Sonny’s music exposes the truth of suffering to different people for different reasons, but the suffering is still there, and comes from people who continue to follow society and succumb to their limitations. Hughes shares the same ideas as Hansberry and Baldwin. In “Harlem,” the speaker asks the condition of dreams when not pursued, “What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun” (Hughes, 1-3). Hughes begins his poem with a question, inviting all readers into the conversation. A raisin, already a dry form of a grape, may be an appealing taste to some. However, a raisin itself dried up further would be an unnattractive image, which Hughes uses to set an unpleasant tone and mental image. Hughes uses similes to give descriptions of the psychological consequences of not following your dreams. Unfulfilled dreams will eventually cause one to give up or let their dreams go. Twain and Hansberry encourage people to pursue their own path instead of following and abiding by societal expectations. Throughout the novel, Huck struggles with the concept of religion because the church believes that slavery is moral and beneficial. He battles with his inner thoughts when the issue of slavery and helping Jim escape comes into effect. He finally has a serious conflict over his conscious, but goes against society and follows his heart. He says, “I’d got to decide, forever, betwixt two things, and I knowed it. I studied a minute, sort of holding my breath, and then says to myself: “All right then, I’ll go to hell”—and tore it up. It was awful thoughts and awful words, but they was said. And I let them stay said; and never thought no more about reforming” (Twain, 214). Huck would rather go to hell as long as it meant following his own mind instead of following society’s inhuman and hypocritical limitations. The decision marks the moral climax of the novel, where Huck sincerely breaks from the world around him. When helping Jim escape slavery once and for all, Huck makes the decision that he does not want to be part of society and its limitations. All his experiences and moral developments on the river makes Huck want to move to a free society. Huck finally finds his peace and happiness, but only from going against his society, which Twain argues throughout the novel. In A Raisin in the Sun, Walter often struggles with the desire for money. A chauffeur for the rich, Walter is reminded every single day of the life he could have lived if  he had invested in the laundromat. At first, Walter believes that the social order which denies him a sense of equality and independence is to blame. He believes that discriminatory elements in his life limit his role, as well as the belief that his closest ones do not support him. Walter’s mistrust in society and inability to work within realistic conditions forces him to run away from them. However, we see growth in character when he refuses Mr. Linder’s money. He says, “And we have decided to move into our house because my father – my father – he earned it for us brick by brick. We don’t want to make no trouble for nobody or fight no causes, and we will try to be good neighbors. And that’s all we got to say about that. We don’t want your money” (Hansberry, 148).  Walter’s desires change from before where he would only focus on his own financial situation to being focused on his integrity and his family. Walter changes from a self-centered man into a selfless individual who stands up for his father’s hardwork, and owns up to his race and heritage. He declines Mr. Lindner’s offer to keep his father’s dreams alive, and ultimately representing his father, a fighter.Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn laid a foundation for future American authors to write about, which they use to encourage people to pave their own way. These authors all argue that following societal norms lead to human suffrage. They argue that freedom is a natural right, and that it’s something humans are born with. That freedom is an absolute right, where we are born to become free. Today, no gender, race, or language you speak define who you are and what you are capable of doing. All men and women are created equal, regardless of the circumstances. People all around the world have rights and some sort of freedom, which can not be taken away from them. Though it may not be perfect, we are blessed to live in a world where people have some sort of rights. This way we can enjoy our freedom through our life.