In recent years,
there has been an increasing demand for people with specialist knowledge in
America and Europe. This phenomenon is based on continuous technological
developments, but also on the expansion of trade in developing countries where
there is a shortage of skilled staff. Trade-related activities require
increased knowledge. Here are the so-called “expatriates” of
companies that move to the country where the company operates and take action
in a country outside their borders to consolidate their company in that country.
Expatriates are selected by the company’s Human Resource Department.
The spread of
globalization and the dubious ending of missions across borders has created an
increased demand for expatriates, which is accompanied by a shortage of
workers. It will become a comparative approach for expatriates, in relation to
the national workers of the enterprise:
Education: It has not
been particularly important for companies to have the expatriate education
continue in the host country by the subsidiary. Of course, there is often no
experience from affiliates to handle such issues without the parent company’s
Surveys show that US
multinationals are less likely to use expatriates less frequently before
leaving than European and Japanese companies. The use of preparation programs
seems to be hampered by the short time between the selection of the candidate
and his departure. In any case, support from the local community is
particularly helpful in adapting the expatriate family to everyday life.
Education is important to continue after the person is transferred.
Expatriates, with the growth of globalization, followed missions in
post-conflict zones, facing difficulties in completing their duties in chaotic
conditions with strong negative effects on unemployment. Still, they are often
forced to work on security restrictions by adding stress, stress and stress to
their work. Without being trained, many expatriates are faced with people who
have suffered significant losses and traumatic experiences in their lives,
possibly resulting in a secondary post-traumatic stress disorder,
International missions offer individuals the opportunity to reshape their
identity through a new culture and environment. Individuals in international
missions are trying to combine the demands and interests of local and parent
companies by striking a balance between global integration and local response.
Through research into
American companies despite the fact that 65% of the executives of H.R.M.
believed that an international career affects positively a person’s career, 77%
of the expatriates felt they had a negative impact on their careers. More
generally, research findings show that expatriates after repatriation feel that
the international mission has neutral or negative influence on the career path,
while many are quitting looking for work in other companies or feel
unproductive as companies do not make use of their international experience.
The research by
Stahl, Miller, Tung (2002) shows that incentives to accept an international
mission such as personal challenge and professional development are more
important than career development opportunities.
said they were unsure about the recognition and reward of their company for the
pursuit of an international mission. As it appears, expatriates, who do not
believe that the policy and practices of the I.H.R.M. have a strategic role,
see that there is a discontinuity between their mission and the subsequent
evolution of the company. Still, the majority of expatriates said they were
unhappy with the way H.R.M. was managed. their mission and repatriation. Also,
the majority of respondents said the international mission would have a
positive effect on future career opportunities among other potential employers,
while fewer people claimed they would help them grow in the same company
From the above
findings it is concluded that international missions help to acquire knowledge,
skills and experiences, which are usually not available in the country of
origin. Despite the general dissatisfaction with the support and reward
offered, expatriates feel they are boosting their business opportunities, but
not always with the same company. (Stahl, Miller, Tung, 2002)
Women: In this area,
expatriates, the number of women is significantly below men, and it is not in
the interest of companies to exclude talented human resources. This is largely
supported by the negative perceptions of companies, and is opposed to the
successful missions of women across the world.
The social and
psychological adaptation of expatriates to the local environment is vital to
the successful completion of their mission. The first refers to the integration
into everyday life, the socialization of the individual in the receiving
country and the second to the emotional and psychological health of the
individual. According to the Selmer, Leung (2003) survey, working women face
greater conflicts and problems in combining their personal and professional
lives than men.
This is because of
the excessive burden on responsibilities and hours of work. Women expatriates,
when accompanied by their family, assume more obligations and pressures than
their male counterparts.
International missions are seen as an indispensable experience for an
individual who wishes to reach the hierarchy of a company operating in the
international business. Wage is a measure of comparison, but also a sense of
correct treatment in the company. However, when a person leaves a foreign
country for an international mission, some business contacts are lost, which
somehow kept away from the parent company’s information network. Certainly, surveys
show that expatriates face international missions as opportunities for personal
and professional development and development. However, it seems that the
repatriates who remain in their company do not receive the recognition they
waited for. By comparison, therefore, with repatriates and domestic workers,
expatriates will report significantly higher levels of satisfaction with the
prospects of their career. (Bonache, 2005).