History has proved that just because one is in a position of authority, it does not mean one’s right. Throughout this year we have seen many instances in which this rang true, and in which authority figures did more harm than good in following what they believed to be right. From the Renaissance when northern humanists criticized the Christian Church and women spoke up for equality, to the culmination of challenging authority: the French Revolution, and the Industrial Revolution where people were overworked and children were made to labor. In addition to Imperialism and the enslavement of entire nations, authority has shown that there are instances in which it must be challenged for history to move forward. Renaissance (p 38) The failure of the Christian Church in spreading the want to live a Christian life inspired many northern humanists in the making of their artwork in a new movement known as Christian humanism. The emphasis of these northern artists was to reform society. The humanists focused on the topic of education and how to integrate both genders into the school system as they looked at human potential. Women such as Christine de Pizan shared this idea, that women should be able to share the privilege of education with men. Both groups, challenged authority and its views, focusing primarily on education. They saw potential in society where the authoritative figures failed to see it, and they worked on correcting this mistake and on making the school system more equal. French Revolution Inspired by the Enlightenment, the French people began to pick apart their rulers and judge their actions as they realized that there was an injustice in the system in which they lived. Their Rulers, Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI had put the country of France in considerable debt and decided to make the commoners pay to repair the debt through taxes. The heavy taxation on the third estate was made unjust when the bourgeoisie paid only two percent of their income to the taxes owed, while the third estate was forced to contribute half of their income. Now that their eyes had been opened to the reality of their country, and they had mustered the courage to fight for equal rights, the third estate beheaded their rulers, and took their place, with Robespierre at the head of this movement, the French Revolution. Industrial Revolution and Imperialism The Industrial Revolution as well as Imperialism exploited men, women, and children. The Industrial Revolution used child labor to lower wages and elongate work hours. Similarly, as the nations of Europe extended their power over other countries, they enslaved millions of men, women, and children making them do arduous work. Once people realized the cruelty and injustice of this treatment of fellow human beings, and after numerous strikes, revolts, and government interventions, both child labor and enslavement were banned, and working hours were set. From Christian humanism and Renaissance women speaking up for equality, to the French Revolution, and the Industrial Revolution and Imperialism where people were overworked and children were made to do strenuous labor, authority has shown that there are instances in which it must be challenged for history to move forward. Each of these dreadful events, has brought us to where we are today, in a society where women can learn, people are free, and democracy reigns.