Gut as synthesizing vitamins B and K. Since every

Gut Flora – Scientific ReviewBy Adam HolanBIG remember to proofread! Anything in red needs to be changedAbstractKey WordsGut: The majority of the digestive tract, including the acid-filled stomach.Gram-Negative: A group of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain in Hans Christian Gram’s method of staining to distinguish between bacteria. It has antibacterial and antifungal properties, and was once a topical antiseptic.Topical: A medication or remedy to place on one’s body.Antiseptic: An antibacterial substance that is applied directly to the skin to prevent infections.Crystal Violet: Also known as hexamethyl pararosaniline chloride(C25H30ClN3), Crystal Violet is a dye used in Histology, the study of the anatomy of microorganisms.Symbiosis: From greek, meaning “living together”. Symbiosis is a type of biological interaction between two organisms, which could be mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.Pathogen: A virus, bacteria, or microorganism that causes a disease in the recipient.IntroductionInside of each and every one of us, we have a multitude of tiny, microscopic creatures that exist inside of us right now. Our gut is lined with over 5 pounds of bacteria that carry out functions that completely shape who we are; not only our physical health, but our mental health as well. Humans instinctively anything foreign or alien inside of our body is always harmful, but with many diseases that are becoming progressively more infective over the past decade, scientists believe they have to rethink what we put inside of our systems, including our antibiotics.Gut Flora – A SummaryInside of us is an entire ecosystem of microscopic organisms that reproduce, create, and help us live our daily lives. There are so many of these flora inside of us that the amount of cells they possess combined outrank our’s by ten to one. Before you can come to learn what they do, you must first learn what they are. As has been stated, gut flora are completely unique to you, and were fully established when you were around one year of age. They reside all across your gut, and some even withstand the harsh conditions of the stomach’s acid. These flora determine many things, from whether or not you will be obese, or even whether or not you have asthma1. In a way, these flora are what make you “human”. As more scientists are discovering, having a healthy ecosystem of these bacteria is crucial to live a healthy life, and things like antibiotics kill not only the harmful bacteria, but the good ones as well. They play a role in helping our immune system, as well as synthesizing vitamins B and K. Since every person’s microbiome is completely unique, it is hard for scientists to pinpoint the “normal” organisms, however what we do know is that these are critical for our immune system, metabolism, and are also connected to our brain. Geography and Flora CompositionThe Gut is mainly composed of two parts: our stomach and our intestines. Due to the high acidity of our stomach, most flora cannot live as a result of the harsh conditions it creates. The ones that live in our stomach are mainly: Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Helicobacter pylori and types of yeast (For more information, see the Flora Examples section on page).The intestine, however, is teeming with flora of many kinds and variations. The small intestine contains fewer organisms due to its small size and close proximity to the highly acidic stomach. However, in the furthest points of the small intestine, its alkaline properties can support a variety of gram-negative bacteria that belong to the Enterobacteriaceae3, a family of bacteria that include many harmless symbionts, as well as some well known pathogens such as Salmonella and Escherichia Coli. The bacteria inside of the small intestine send signals that control the growth and utility of the gut, and overgrowth of bacteria inside the small intestine can lead to intestinal failure. The large intestine, however, contains the largest bacterial ecosystem in the body. Bacteria make up a large majority of the colon, and around 60% of dry mass in feces, making it an abundant and extremely useful source for gathering information on gut flora. These gut flora are essential to our lives as they do many useful things, such as training our immune system to block pathogens and other harmful viruses, create biotin and vitamin K, and produce hormones that direct where to store fats into the host3, hence why imbalances or heavy modification thereof can lead to obesity. Human geography can show changes in gut flora, such as the variations of Prevotella, another genus of gram-negative bacteria, between the populations that reside in either the US or African regions, as well as how different types of bacteria exist depending on your diet, however due to the fluctuations in microbiomes between people it is very difficult to pinpoint which microbes are “normal” for someone to carry.    Age & DietCertain studies have proven there to be variations of flora composition throughout a human’s life. Generally, the diversity of microbiota in adults is much higher than that of a child,  as has been proven by taking fecal samples5. Most of the maturation of the microbiota into a configuration akin to that of an adult happens during the first three years of life5, however the microbiome still goes through many changes later on. Should the composition of the microbiome change, so would the proteins produced inside of the gut. Adult microbes produce higher quantities of enzymes that would effectively ferment and metabolize arginine, an amino acid that is involved in the biosynthesis of protein, while children’s microbiomes tend to contain the microbes necessary to ferment and metabolize cysteine, a semi-essential amino acid that is also involved in the biosynthesis certain proteins5.Studies have determined through studies that gut flora are mainly composed up of three types: Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Ruminococcus. Each type has its own distinction between their diets. For instance, Bacteroides mainly consumes proteins, amino acids, and saturated fats.Bibliography1: Potera, Carol. “Asthma: A Gut Reaction to Antibiotics.” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 113, no. 6, 2005, pp. A372–A372. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3436276.2: Guarner, Francisco. “Gut Flora in Health and Disease.” The Lancet, Elsevier Inc, 8 Feb. 2003, www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(03)12489-0/fulltext.3: Willey, Joanne M., et al. Prescott’s Microbiology. McGraw-Hill Education, 2017.4:Quigley, Eamonn M.M, and Rodrigo Quera. “Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Roles of Antibiotics, Prebiotics, and Probiotics.” Http://www.gastrojournal.org, Elsevier Inc, Feb. 2006, www.gastrojournal.org/article/S0016-5085(05)02420-0/fulltext5:Yatsunenko, T., F. E. Rey, M. J. Manary, I. Trehan, M. G. Dominguez-Bello, M. Contreras, M. Magris, G. Hidalgo, R. N. Baldassano, A. P. Anokhin, A. C. Heath, B. Warner, J. Reeder, J. Kuczynski, J. G. Caporaso, C. A. Lozupone, C. Lauber, J. C. Clemente, D. Knights, R. Knight, and J. I. Gordon. “Human Gut Microbiome Viewed across Age and Geography.” Nature. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 09 May 2012. Web. 16 Jan. 2018. .