Energy through the figure that compares the energy generation

Energy crises:

Fuel as the main source of energy is so important in different fields of life. According to the standard way of thinking, we experience the disadvantages
of a lack of energy. Energy is currently
the main discussion of everyone in the society, all are suffering from of the
deficiency of energy. Costs have been energetically raised through the last 5
years, because of the rising want and the heightening deficiency of energy
resources. The energy crises happened because of the low rely on renewable energy and the high dependency on the non-renewable
resources which will end one day. The hydrocarbons coal oil and gas
together constitute eighty-five percent
of the world’s aggregate energy supply. On the other hand, the renewable resources
of energy such as hydro, solar, wind, nuclear, geothermal, biogas and wave constitute just fifteen percent of the worldwide offer of energy supply.

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developments through the years increase which affects
the using of energy, it was recognized that humanity depends mainly on coal,
oil and petroleum gas as main sources. Many nations are currently arranging
high offers of sustainable power source that is California 33%, Germany half in
the next twenty years, Denmark 100% in the following twenty years. It’s a myth
that interest in the renewable energy will never achieve high levels.
Investment internationally today is 250 billion dollars for every year in a renewable energy source that is more than the
world put resources into non-renewable energy sources and nuclear power
combined. Different statistics
predict  that the request for energy will dramatically increase from 75% to 90%  through the coming 20 years, this can be
easily noticed through the figure that compares the energy generation in
Germany as an example from 2003 to 2013 and the main point to be discussed is that the depending on renewable
energy increase from 7.5% to 23.4% which is more than 3 times, that really
reflect the major industrial countries plans that support this approach. Reference:
Energy Crisis and it’s Statistics Inamullah Haneef1 and Faisal Hussain Memon1
1Department of Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering, Mehran University of
Engineering & Technology SZAB Campus Khairpur Mir’s


Figure-1: Generation of Electricity by Renewable Energy Source










 New resources for energy was
the main object for many researchers to satisfy the human needs from energy. In
such case, they started to look for new untraditional natural resources by
following the well-known hypothesis that any organic object with carbon
main structure has an amount of energy, and from the human nature, which likes
to exploit all resources for its own interests, scientists used new resources
to produce energy like feedstock, waste and biomass.

Biomass basically integrates carbon
dioxide and energy into chemical energy
by photosynthesis. Biomass contains agricultural
and forestry residues, wood, byproducts from the processing of biological materials, and organic parts of municipal
and sludge wastes. The utilization of biomass as a fuel is a carbon natural
process since the carbon dioxide caught through photosynthesis is discharged during
its combustion.
kumar Photosynthesis by plants catches around 4,000 EJ/year as energy
in biomass. The appraisals of potential worldwide biomass energy changed widely.
The changeability emerges from the diverse styles of biomass and the unique
strategies for deciding assessments for those biomasses.  Parikka assessed the aggregate overall energy
potential from biomass on an economical prediction to be 104 EJ/year, of which
woody biomass, energy products and straw constituted 40.1%, 36% and 16.6%,
separately 3. Just around 40% of potential biomass energy is right now used.
In Asia, the present biomass used slightly exceed the reasonable biomass
potential. Right now, the aggregate worldwide energy request is about 470
EJ/year. Fischer and Schrattenholzer assessed the worldwide biomass potential
to be 91 to 675 EJ/year for the years 1990 to 2060 1. Their biomass contains crop
and forestry residues, energy crops, and animal and municipal wastes. Hoogwijk evaluated
these to be 33 to 1135 EJ/year 2. Perlack assessed that, in the USA,  1.3
billion tons of biomass can be collected every year for biofuel generation 4.
1.3 billion tons of biomass is almost 3.8 billion barrels of oil in energy
content. US energy consumption is around
7 billion barrels every year 5. Nonetheless, harvesting, gathering and
capacity of biomass include another
measurement of specialized difficulties to the utilization of biomass for production
of fuels, chemicals and biopower 6.

of converting biomass to biofuel and

Two primary methods for changing biomass energy into biofuels and
biopower: biochemical conversion and
thermochemical conversion process.
Biochemical conversion changes the
biomass into fluid or gas by fermentation or
anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion prompts the generation of gases
fuel fundamentally containing methane. Fermentation of the biomass (starch and
cellulose) creates basically ethanol. Thermochemical conversion technology contains
combustion, gasification and pyrolysis.

It has
certain advantages and disadvantages. The primary advantages are that the
feedstock for thermochemical transformation can be any kind of biomass such agricultural
residues, forestry residues, byproducts of any bioprocessing facility and even
organic municipal wastes and the gases can be changed over to different types
of fuels  (H2, Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel, manufactured gas) and chemicals
(methanol, urea) as alternatives for oil-based
chemicals. The real disadvantages are the high cost related with cleaning the produced
gas from tar and unwanted contaminants like alkali compounds, inefficiency
because of the high temperatures required, and the doubtful utilization of products
(syngas and bio-oil) as transportation fuels (11). Combustion of biomass is the
most immediate and actually simplest process, the general efficiency of creating
heat from biomass energy is low. Refer to Kumar

The biomass gasification process made of the transformation of a solid/fluid
natural compound in a gas/ vapour phase
and a solid phase. The gas phase, ordinarily called “syngas”, has a
high heating power and can be utilized for biofuel generation. The solid phase,
called “char”, contains the natural unconverted division and the
inactive material occurred in the processed biomass. This transformation occurs
to a partial oxidation of the carbon in the material also, and carried out by
the gasifying carrier, for example, air, oxygen, steam or carbon dioxide.


Pyrolysis as a promising method
can be considered as one of the big revolutions in producing energy. As one of
the thermochemical conversion process, pyrolysis occurs at a range of temperature started from 400 C – 500 C
in the absence of oxygen to produce gaseous, bio-oil in liquid form and char in
solid form. Large particles in biomass disintegrate or depolymerize at high
temperature to gas phase abandoning some solid charcoal 1. The gaseous phase contains condensable and incondensable compounds.
The condensable compounds can be cooled to produce chemicals and bio-oils Wan 2009. chen 2 .pyrolysis
can occur through deferent methods such as conventional
pyrolysis where a high product of hydrogen-rich gas is gotten working at high
temperature and for a long time 14,15. Dom?´nguez. Heat converted
to the material by convection, conduction
and radiation were it was noticeable that the heating manner of the material
started from the surface to the inner parts (Thostenson and Chou, 1999). Huang.  Conventional pyrolysis would be done by different methods
like fluidized bed, fixed bed, rotating cone, transported bed, augur or
screw (Zhang et al.,) Zhang 2015

2013).Another conceivable pyrolysis alternative called, flash or
fast pyrolysis that have been used to increase  the yield of fluid. In this case, a high
warming rate, low living arrangement time and temperatures of around 500 C are
utilized 17– 19 Dom?´nguez

Physics behind Microwave heating;

Microwave pyrolysis which is the main point to be discussed basically
depends on the microwave radiation as a
source of heat to reach the suitable temperature.
Microwave heating is an alluring technique
as it gives a volumetric heating process at improved heating efficiencies as
contrasted with conventional one. Uniform heating inside the material can be
observed if the conditions controlled accurately. Therefore, materials vary in their reaction to microwave heating.
Materials have distinctive ideal frequencies that can be estimated while not all materials absorb microwaves. A few materials reflect or seem transparent to
microwaves and are consequently less receptive to heating. Materials that absorb
microwaves are known as dielectrics and have two main properties 1:  They don’t  have that much of free charge carriers.
A small amount of charge carried through the material matrix when
an external electric field applied. The atoms or molecules including the
dielectric display a dipole development.

The microwave frequency occurs
between 300 MHz and 300 GHz, most microwave applications are done in the range of 3 and 30 GHz.

In industry, microwave heating is performed at either a frequency near 900 MHz or at 2450 MHz 2.  The material ability to absorb microwave energy
is measured by its loss factor. Reflecting
materials don’t store microwave energy in heat form, as the waves go
through the material.

Metals as an example of the reflecting material, have a property that
the waves reflect off the material surface. Materials with microwave absorbing properties can be adequately heated
at room temperature. Nonetheless, due to the heating mechanism in microwave frameworks, insulators that are materials
with low microwave conductivities, for example, start to absorb effectively
with microwave radiation at the point when heating exceeds critical temperature, Tc 3. At the point when a
dielectric is in an electric field (i.e., a microwave cavity), the dipoles
inside the material start to organize themselves as indicated by the connected
field. The dipoles in the material exposed to electromagnetic field reorganize
themselves around 2.5 billion times each second (for a microwave frequency of
2.45 GHz). This produces internal friction, causing the microwave responsive
material to warm up 4. Appleton





Microwave pyrolysis:

Using the microwave as a source of energy for the pyrolysis was a
sign for a new generation in energy production. It’s an effective uniform rapid
heating way to convert the biomass to
solid, liquid and gaseous products. Microwave pyrolysis beats a few detriments disadvantages of conventional pyrolysis
techniques such as slow warming and need
of feedstock ripping. It moreover gives advantages
including expanded product production, process time,  saving energy, and low necessities for space 7.
The microwave assisted pyrolysis strategy has been effectively connected to
plant residues 8,9, wood 12,13, car industry and plastic wastes 10,11. Microwave
can create microplasmas and hot spots, which advance heterogeneous reaction and create more concentrations of
syngas and hydrogen in the gas products Zhang-2015 creates
less polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), resulting
in less risky compound (Dominguez et al., 2003). huang-2010

 It is accounted that the
material properties and working conditions are the primary variables
influencing microwave pyrolysis process
since they decide the qualities and the yields of the product 15. Past
investigation likewise proved that temperature and pyrolysis time were the important
factors in the microwave pyrolysis of corn stover 9 and distils dried grain
with solvent 16. zhoe 2013.  A relation
between the particle size and the microwave power as an affected parameters was
recognized in Huang-2008 research and they
found that the small particles will generate effectively
more yields at low microwave power.

  Zhoe 2011  found that the main gas products from
microwave pyrolysis of wheat and straw bale were CO, CO2, H2,
CH2, C2H6  with 35 vol.% of pure H2. While Huang-2010
examined that it’s 50.67vol.% of the rice straw.