Emotional the role of genetics and the brain shapes

Emotional
stability or instability, as in this case, is also modeled in the Big Five
factors of personality, and associated with similar etiological
influences.  Big Five has been utilized
as an effective means to measure differences in personality traits, and as
Raggatt (2006) points out, “show significant associations with the ways that
people tell their life narratives – for example, sad stories told by those high
in Neuroticism,” (p. 1323). Specific traits can highlight patterns of an
individual’s behavior, and can further identify a hierarchical personality
description with six subcomponents for each of the five factors. In this case,
the factors of neuroticism, the six facets are the vulnerability, depression,
self-consciousness, anxiety, impulsiveness, and/or hostility. Two (depression
and anxiety) are associated the client.

Another
theoretical approach, in this case, can be view biologically or genetically
perspective. The focus of a biological perspective is concentrated on the role
of genetics and the brain shapes the individual’s personality. That is, when
trying to understanding the individual, it is important to take into account,
genetic influences and its impact on personalities and behavior. Additionally,
Baker (2015) points out, that genes influence the ways in which families
function and how family members relate to one another,” (p. 1). This brings
merit to this case in which validates the client’s concerns regarding his
father and grandfather committing suicide. In support of this Jockin (1996)
mentioned, “Genetically influenced personality traits, such as negative
emotionality (i.e., neuroticism), are also predictive of divorce, and may
explain much of the genetic risk for divorce,” (p. 6). Coupling this with
environmental factors (i.e. family or parental relationships), are strong
predictors of mental health and on behavioral outcomes.

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Genetic
and environmental is also another perspective that can be taken into
consideration. It can be argued that there can be a correlation with the predisposition
for environmental stress and genetic factors with individuals who susceptible
suicide ideations or associated risk factors. According to the stress-diathesis
archetype, the associated risk factors are considered distal or proximal. In
other words, “distal risk factors include personality, biological, and genetic
variables, while proximal, factors are life events, stress, acute episodes of
mental illness, and acute alcohol or substance abuse,” (Roy, 2012). In the case
of this client, genetic factors are an important influential factor for
suicidal behavior who has been exposed to environmental stress regarding
current adverse life situations, or past experiences.

While
an individual’s genetics can play a key role in the development of mental
health issues such as depression and anxiety, biological factors must also be
taken into consideration. According to Aan Het Rot, Mathew, and Charney (2009),
“Structural and functional brain abnormalities in patients with the major
depressive disorder may be associated with low levels of a brain-derived
neurotrophic factor,” (p. 305). These abnormalities may elicit an emotional
response that induces the behavior. The part of the brain that is primarily
responsible for that function (emotion) is the amygdala and insular cortex of
the temporal lobe. Additionally, as Advokat, Advokat, Comaty, and Julien (2015)
points out, “Neuroanatomically, the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and
insula are associated with the production of behavioral responses to fearful
stimuli and the central mediation of anxiety and panic,” (p. 436). The
human brain is an exceptionally complex biological organism that can influence
an individual’s behavior. The individual’s 
responses are stimulated by electrical impulses to these areas that
induce the individual’s emotions.

There
are various methodologies of studying the brain in order to analyze brain
functions that influence human behaviors. Neuroimaging or brain scanning
techniques are used identify the structural and functional activity of the
brain changes. For example, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is
utilized to study or examine the connection or changes between behavioral and
physiological impressions in an individual’s brain activity. According to
O’Connor and Agius (2015), “fMRI studies show associations between altered
activity in these two regions and cognitive impairments in patients with
psychotic depression,” (p 39). From a biological perspective, utilizing
neuroimaging techniques such as the fMRI is instrumental in delivering the
necessary tools for researching brain abnormalities in patients with mental
disorders.

When
analyzing cases such as this, and utilizing the various methodologies,
confidentiality is important in protecting the sensitive information about the
client. The client and the information utilized in this case must be kept
anonymous unless the individual gives their full consent.  Therefore, the client name was omitted in
this case. There are ethical guidelines that apply, but not limited too, are
covered in Standard 8, particularly 8.01 Institutional; Approval 8.02 Informed
Consent to Research; 8.07 Deception in Research. Additionally, considering it
involves research on people, their well-being throughout the research must be
the utmost or top priority. There may be participants that may be sensitive or
undergoing personal issues or concerns in which they may be in a vulnerable or
emotional state. Therefore, it is the researcher’s duty to protect them from
the exploitation of their vulnerability. This is covered in Principle A:
Beneficence and Nonmaleficence, which states, “Psychologists strive to benefit
those with whom they work and take care to do no harm,” (APA, 2010).

Each
theoretical perspectives give different constructs in the understanding of the
client who was diagnosed as chronically mentally ill. A phenomenological
perspective focuses on an individual’s experiences regarding a phenomenon, and
how they interpret their experiences. The biological perspective points out
most behaviors are inherited and influenced by genetics, brain abnormality, and
even influence by the environment. And traits are unique and predispose an
individual to think or act in a particular way. While each perspective provides
some validity, understanding the influential factors contributing to the
individual mental state from either perspective can provide a means a recovery
or coping with a mental illness or disorder.

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