A POND is a fresh water bodies, whose size varies from 1square meter to 20,000 square meter, and holds water for few months or throughout the year. Ponds are present everywhere such as in towns, villages, gardens, in floodplains and on farmlands. They have large impact on environmental issues that affect us like flooding, ground water recharging and pollution.
Ecological restoration of the water bodies involves the following processes:
· Restoration of physical conditions.
· Adjustment of the chemical conditions of soil and water.
· Biological rehabilitation involving the reintroduction of previous native flora and fauna.
The initial steps involve restricting the point sources of pollution such as waste water (domestic and municipal), agricultural runoff etc. The next steps include the removal of unwanted vegetation such as algal bloom, invasive hydrophytes etc. by mechanical methods. Then we follow up by the methods of chemical treatment such as the application of flocculating agents like lime, alum etc, disinfection by chlorine, ozone etc. and then we apply aeration through various methods. These processes help in reducing the nutrient (N, P) and organic load of water bodies which results in a decrease in eutrophication of the water bodies. The physico- chemical characteristics of water bodies are balanced by using these chemical treatments. Then we will aim to restore the biological components of the system by analyzing the history of particular region.
These restoration strategies will be designed based on the analysis of various parameters such as BOD, COD , TDS, DO , heavy metals, phosphorus etc. the dosage of chemicals used in chemical treatment would be carried out in a specific way as per the reduction of pollutants and will be low enough so as not to harm the organisms. The biological treatment process will involve the indigenous organisms of the area and will be ethically sound. The water body will then be regularly (monthly) monitored whether any additional treatment options is needed to be considered or not.