Computer 7. OSI Model 8. WLAN 9. Cryptography 10.

Computer networking is an engineering discipline dealing
with the relationships between two or more computer systems or devices, whether
through the Internet, an intranet, or an extranet. The study of computer
networks involves both hardware and software issues.  Computer Networking is the base of
communication through which we are connected with each other. Some of the
trending fields and topics in Networking   which are very useful for research. These are
as follow:

 

1.      Wireless Sensor Network(WSN)

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2.      TCP/IP Protocol

3.      IPv4/IPv6

4.      Network Simulator(NS)

5.      MANET

6.      Network Security

7.      OSI Model

8.      WLAN

9.      Cryptography

10.  IEEE 802

 

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)   is a wireless network that
consists of distributed devices. Each device has a sensor to sense and monitor
its surroundings and send the measured information to the base station. There
are certain protocols for this type of network. Characteristics of WSN are:

 

·                    
Energy
harvesting through power consumption constraints

·                    
Ability
to handle node failure

·                    
Nodes
mobility

·                    
Scalability

·                    
Easy
to use

·                    
Design
is cross-layer

Advantages of Wireless Sensor
Network

1.      Flexibility

2.     
New
devices can be added

3.     
Save
cost

4.     
Wide
range of applications 

TCP/IP Protocol

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is a set of rules to
access the internet with interconnection of various internet-based devices. We
can say it is a communication protocol in which there is a host with access to
the internet. TCP/IP provides end to end data transmission between devices
along with some other functionalities like addressing, mapping and
acknowledgement. TCP/IP is a combination of two protocols. TCP controls the
messages by dividing them into packets. IP controls the transmission of these
packets from sender to the receiver.

 

TCP/IP
protocol layers

 

Following
are the four layers of TCP/IP:

·        
Application
layer

·        
Transport
layer

·        
Internet
layer

·        
Physical
layer

Advantages of TCP/IP protocol

It can be easily modified.
It is compatible with all the operating
systems.
It is scalable in determining
the most appropriate path.

IPv4/IPv6

It
is another major topic in computer networking  and also a good choice
for thesis or project. Ipv4 is the fourth version of internet protocol while
Ipv6 is the sixth version of internet protocol.

Characteristics of IPv4

It uses 32-bit address.
The address is written in
decimal separated by dots.
The header includes a checksum.
Broadcast addresses are used to
send data packets to other nodes.
In this the Internet Protocol
Security is optional.

Characteristics of Ipv6

It uses 128-bit address.
The address is written in
hexadecimal separated by colons.
The header does not include a
checksum.
Broadcast addresses are not
used to send data packets.
The Internet Security Protocol
is compulsory.

Network
Simulator(NS)

.NS stands for Network Simulator. It is an open-source,
discrete-event based network simulator mainly used for research purpose and for
teaching. It provides help in simulating routing protocols like IP, TCP, UDP
etc. It creates a simulation environment for studying the network. Following
steps are followed while creating a simulation environment:

Topology Definition
Development of the model
Configuration of the link
Execution
Analysis of the problem
Visualization

Advantages of NS

It has the ability to support
multiple protocols.
It can represent network
traffic graphically.
It can also support multiple
algorithms for routing and queuing

MANET

MANET stands for mobile ad hoc Network. In MANET,   the
nodes are self-configurable and have the ability to move freely in any
direction and can link with other devices frequently. MANET was originally used
as military project in defense. MANET have the challenges of weak signal
strength, reliability, power consumption along with some other problems.

 

Characteristics of MANET

·        
Each
node is independent in nature i.e. each node act as the host as well as the
router. 

·        
It
is based on distributed nature of operation for security and configuration.

·        
The
network is dynamic in nature i.e each node can join and exit the network at any
time.

·        
The
nodes in the network are associated with less memory and power.

·        
In
MANET, the bandwidth remains fluctuating. 

·        
MANET
creates a symmetric environment such that all the nodes have identical features
like responsibilities and capabilities

Network Security

 

Network Security is the set of rules to ensure
the safety of the network of an organization or personal network. You can
choose this topic for your project, thesis and research if you have complete
understanding of how the data is transferred over the network. Network Security
also   include security of physical
hardware devices. Network Security in software means providing authorized
access to the network by means of ids and passwords. 

Whenever a user tries to access the network, his
authenticity is checked by means of ids and passwords. This is done to prevent
any malicious user entering the network by the motive of hacking it.

 

Types of attacks to network

 

Active Attack – In this type of attack, a hacker tries to make
changes to data while it is being sent from one node to another.

Passive Attack – In this type of attack, an outsider monitors system
of the organization consistently to find vulnerable ports. 

 

Network Security Tools

Following are some of the tools employed in network
security:

Wireshark
Aircrack
Snort
BackTrack
Netcat

 

OSI Model

 

OSI stands for open system interconnection. It provides a
networking framework to implement protocols in layers. There are seven layers
of OSI Model:

Physical Layer – This layer is responsible for transferring digital
data from source to the destination.

Data Link Layer – This layer checks error in data along with the MAC
address. It turns bits into data frames.

Network Layer – This layer checks whether the data has reached the
destination or not by examining the source and the destination address.

Transport Layer – This layer transfers data over the network by using
TCP protocol.

Session Layer – This  layer
manages the events and keep them in sequence. It supports multiple types of
connections.

Presentation Layer – It looks after the syntax along with encryption and
decryption for the application layer above it.

Application Layer – It provides end-to-end user applications using
protocols like HTTP, FTP, SMTP.

 

It is different from TCP/IP model. You will get thesis guide
on this topic from computer networking experts. 

 

WLAN

It stands for Wireless Local Area Network. It is wireless
distribution method that uses high-frequency radio waves with a single access
point to the internet. In other words, it is a wireless communication between
two or more devices such that users can move around in a limited range area. It
is most commonly used in homes or offices. The component connected to WLAN is
referred to as the station. There are two types of stations –

 Access Point &  Client

 

Access Points are the base stations that transmit and
receive radio frequencies for wireless enabled devices. Clients are the mobile
phones, laptops, desktops connected to the wireless network.

 

Modes of Operation of WLAN

 

There are two modes of operation of WLAN:

Infrastructure – In infrastructure mode, base station act as the
access point and all the nodes communicate through this point. 

Ad hoc –
In Ad hoc mode, mobile devices transmit data directly using peer to peer
method. In this, there is no base station. 

 

Cryptography

It is the science of maintaining privacy of data. There are
three main objectives of cryptography used in transferring data over the
network:

Confidentiality
Integrity
Authentication

Cryptography employs two techniques for maintaining the
privacy of data:

Encryption – In encryption, the plain text is converted into some
other form known as cipher text.

Decryption – In this technique, the converted text i.e the cipher
text is translated back to the original text. 

There are two algorithms for cryptography. In a symmetric
key, both the sender and the receiver share the same key for encryption and
decryption.

In an asymmetric key, both the users have different keys
respectively for encryption and decryption.

 

IEEE 802

IEEE stands for Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers. IEEE 802 is a very challenging and a very good topic for your
thesis. IEEE 802 comes under IEEE and deal with LAN(Local Area Network) and
MAN(Metropolitan Area Network). It specifies certain services and protocols for
data link layer and physical layer of OSI model. IEEE is further subdivided
into 22 parts that cover a wide range of services. 

IEEE 802 subdivides data link layer into two layers namely:

Logical
Link Layer(LLC)
 Media Access Control(MAC)

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