communication, judgment, observation, team working, and decision making are five important teaches reflective thinking skills that are necessary for teachers if they want to be a reflective teacher. This paper will suggest almost five fundamental teaching skills that show student centered, reflective teaching practices that provide a process-oriented any object comprised of parts adapted or united together for teaching skills with both cognitive and affective components. This paper will introduce the five important skills that is necessary for being reflective towards students. These teachers’ reflective thinking skills help to identify teachers’ reflective thinking weakness and strength and find the ways for improving their reflecting thinking. It will show us reflective thinking tools such as video or audio recording, writing, drawing and photography that are involve in observation skill. Then it will represent the Characteristic of a reflective teacher and the main point of reflective teaching method that is to expand teachers reasoning about why they use such instructional strategies and how they can employ method that have a positive effect on students.
Keywords: reflective thinking; reflective thinking skills; teachers’ reflective thinking skills; reflective practice; learning.
The process of acquiring knowledge for teachers must be about their own practice, must be created based on experiences extracted from their practice and; hence, the learning of experience followed by reflection (Harrison et al., 2006). Dewey (1933) identified reflection as one of the modes of thought: ”active, persistent, and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in light of the grounds that support it and the future conclusions to which it tends.” (p. 7). Sch?n (1987) made the term “reflective thinking” an important theme in teacher education. Reflective thinking as a popular term in teacher education is a mode of thinking which would be used correspondingly with modes of thinking like metacognition, critical thinking, analytical thinking, and creative thinking among modern education approaches during education process (Gurol, 2011). Danielson (1996) noted that reflection refers to an activity or process in which an experience is recalled, considered, and evaluated, usually in relation to a broader purpose. It is an answer to past experience and cause to be concerned with conscious remember and test of the experience as a basis for evaluation and decision-making and as a source for planning and action. With experience, teachers can become more discriminating and can evaluate their successes as well as their faults. Regarding to Donald et al. (2006), teaching is a complex activity that requires teachers to think about or reflect on what they do. Good teachers can become even more effective by reflecting on teaching. According to this view, teacher reflection promotes critical approaches to one’s teaching and, consequently, leads to better practice (Oser et al., 1992; Artzt and Armour-Thomas, 2001; Mayes, 2001; Swain, 1998 Proceeding of self-examination and self-evaluation that teachers should keep in to expound and enhance their professional practices (Husu, Toom, and Patrikainen, 2006). The most important factor which separate the reflective thinking from all these thinking sort is that it gives as a solution explaining, deferring, translating, converting to the individual, cognizing the subjects thought in the school and being presaging for the future. Dymoke and Harrison (2008) stated that the five reflective thinking skills core qualified thoughts are advertence, dispatch, judgement, decision making, and team working. All five of these are vital skilled profession are good to all levels of teacher learning, containg premier teacher education. Teachers can elaborate reflective thinking skills by the commerce provided in argument journal, purposeful confabulation, and teaching portfolios (Cruickshank et al., 2006). reflective thinking of teachers tools such as recording, writing, drawing, photography, learning journal, portfolio, lesson plan, co-teaching, concur practitioner enquiry and action research can be useful for support teachers’ reflective thinking skills (Dymoke & Harrison, 2008).
The area of feed backing and reflective methods is by no means an untouched area of academic investigation. As it is expected such an important and deep item serves as a trunk with outspread roots and many growing branches to explore.
In teaching and learning reflection has many effects. The most important one is encouraging to view problems from different aspects. knowing is not just enough, applying concepts learned is also essential. There are two elements of reflective thinking: the first one is about stating of distraction, irresolution, doubt, and the second one is about an acting of search or probing directed toward bringing to light further facts which work to support or to vacate the infer faith. Finally, understand that “thinking incomings from a higher faculty (of reason), and is happened with ethereal or at least literary things” (Dewey, 1944, p.153). one of the practices for supporting the process of reflection is reflective writing. “in time and space there are permanent objects such as through writing, expressions.” (Olson,2009, p.51). For becoming reflective interpreter, journal writing skill will help. It is necessary to developed reflective writing (Eddy, 2011). One of the important tools for Understanding, organizing, and communicating knowledge is writing. Writing and of combining fluent writing with firmament-based learning is important for writers, involving scientific inquiry Writing is not just a way to explain our knowledge (Levin and Wagner 2005). Observation, communication, judgment, decision making, and team working are five essential reflective skills. All reflective skills are explained below.
Observation Skills include noticing, marking and recording in order to distinguish something from its surrounding. Noticing includes recording brief but vivid details which allows recognizing the situation for itself. There are several ways in which teachers might do observation include brief recording: through writing, drawing, or video- and audio-recording, and even photography (Dymoke and Harrison, 2008). Communication skills in relation to reflective method can be developed in different ways: by keeping a personal diary, or through a more academic way: portfolio, supported by a system of academic students with a mentor (Dymoke and Harrison, 2008). Since critical reflection on practice is a difficult and active process (Sch?n, 1983, 1987, 1991), teachers can start by asking their self a series of questions about special teaching or an important incident within last teaching, and write down their impressions using one of these ways of recording: What have I done? What am I doing? What happened? What is happening? What led me up to this? On which circumstances? And for what reasons?
In some reflective thinking tools such as video or audio recording, writing, drawing and photography observation skill is involved. (Dymoke & Harrison ,2008). Therefore, teachers used six question in order to teach them observation skill. For analyzing this skill, six questions are provided for the teachers that they can use to get observation skill in their classes. The Question 1 is about benefit of observation tools and practice for recording classroom teaching. The Questions 2 and 3 are the same in understanding the importance of classroom recording and using another. Observation tools. In these questions The ways of imposing teachers’ teaching and improving of their teaching are demanded.
Judgement Skill says in order to focus on a classroom, event or situation, teachers should focus on what that event or situation consists of. If teachers themselves are involved in that situation, then this view of the situation should be impartial. Just describing what has happened during the class can be problematic as well. Teachers should, rather skillfully, combine details with their judgment, or with explanations. As a judge, it is essential for a teacher to find the best idea and not wait for the perfect idea (Dymoke and Harrison, 2008). Decision making is modified as selecting a course of action to achieve a goal. In decision making skills, the usage of different types of reflective practice strategies are vital and they allow teachers to see, and cope better with, the complexities of teaching and teachers are to make additional decisions. In fact, reflective strategies associated with practice can help teachers to investigate the strength and weakness of a specific lesson more extremely through dialog and critical reflection on practice. Teacher will find themselves working in a number of teams from the start of their teaching career, their subject or study program and courses offered by a school, their pastoral team and cross-curricular groups working on particular issues such as personalized learning and aspects of assessment, and so on (Dymoke and Harrison, 2008). Co-teaching, work jointly on an activity or project or classroom, practitioner investigation and action research are tools that study the team working skill of teachers in the classrooms.
For focusing on learning, Students should be followed in reflection writing. One vital question then, is to explore whether and if scaffolds and other support structures are important for developing to the required nerdy level can reflect at higher levels. (Levin and Wagner 2005) forming writing in a way that emphasizes probing, expressive delving, discovery, problem-solving, decision making and knowledge erection is necessary for students by writing -to-learn tasks. For getting these learning upshots, students must be entrusted writing tasks that demand them to compact effects of understanding and reflect on writing. in the science classroom Writing-to-learn techniques is a tool for improving thinking and communication skills and greasing enculturation into the community of science expounders. Improving thinking and communication skills, is important for understanding knowledge and develop perception in science, thereby engendering scientific literacy (McDonald & Dominguez, 2009).
Characteristic of a reflective teacher
Believes all knowledge is constructed or invented by the learners and leaner is involved in class activities. Involving of the learners is in active manipulations of meaning, numbers, and patterns. He/ She believes learning in nonlinear and also provides students with tools of empowerment; concepts, procedures, self-motivation and reflection. A reflective teacher believes that learning occurs most effectively through guided discovery, meaningful application and problem solving. He should by considering his or her skills and ability create an analytic, practical and creative thinking to achieve a status of professional knowledge in learners.
The main point of reflective teaching method is to expand teachers reasoning about why they use such instructional strategies and how they can employ method that have a positive effect on students. In order to have an effective and efficient method it is essential for teachers to possess competencies, abilities, knowledge, and skills (Rosenberg, Sindela, and Hardman, 2004). The learning process for teachers must be built on experiences derived from their practice and; therefore, the learning of experience followed by reflection (Harrison et al., 2006). Donald et al. (2006), states that teaching is a complex activity that requires teachers to think about or reflect on what they do. Good teachers can become even more effective by reflecting on teaching. Dymoke and Harrison (2008) noted that the five essential reflective thinking skills thoughts are observation, communication, judgement, decision making, and team working. All five skills of reflective thinking are necessary and are applicable to all stages of teaching. reflective thinking skills can be developed by the interaction provided through a dialogue journal, purposeful discussions, and teaching portfolios (Cruickshank et al., 2006).
Why using Reflective methods?
For analyzing a classroom, event or situation, teachers are responsible for what that event or situation outcomes. If teachers also are related in that event or situation, then the condition of the event must be equal. Description of what happens among the event is one of the problems. Teachers maybe took it personal with details of the event, or with additional explanations and theories. In general, you should quickly find the best idea. (Dymoke & Harrison, 2008). Teachers are responsible from the beginning of their teaching career: their subject or education team, their rural team and cross-education groups focus on particular issues such as epitomize learning and kinds of imposition, and so on (Dymoke and Harrison, 2008). The team working skill of teachers will be made by procedures such as Co-teaching, collaborative practitioner enquiry and action research One of the ways to get an appetite point is decision making as selecting a course of active. In decision making skills, teachers use different types of reflective practice strategies and they provide for teachers seeing, and cope better with, teaching involution and making decisions for further actions. In fact, teachers use reflective practice strategies to get probing the strength and weakness of a lesson more deeply in discussion of through dialog and rejective reflection on practice) Fariba Mirzaeia, Fatin Aliah Phangb & Hamidreza Kashefi,2013).
Reflection plays an important part in learning process, so practicing reflection strategies in different courses is vital. Reflection may be practiced through feedback of written works. Reflection and feedback both are experiential, that is to say, they can be done in a class room environment. reflection is a mental technique that incorporates vital idea about an experience and demonstrates learning that can be taken forward. (Sarah Quinton & Teresa Smallbone, 2010). Over the past decade the value of reflection in academic courses have been much used. Different authors have defined the value of reflection Moon (2002) suggests that reflection desire facilitate both the analysis of interior strengths and weaknesses, and the acquisition of a questioning approach. Sadler (1989) argues that in order to take effective action, students need to be able to evaluate their own learning and so develop skills in self-assessment. Transferring tacit self-knowledge into explicit plans for improvement increases the value gained from learning and helps students create a directional strategy (Smith & Pilling, 2007).
This article has discussed five skills of reflective teaching and the basis of this method. Being a reflective teacher means collecting data about your teaching methods, analyzing it, and reflecting upon it in a basic manner to improve your own method. The teaching methods this article has described and give the details of a process-oriented approach to teaching that is frequentative and dynamic. They are reflective methods, in that the person who promotes is successively reflecting upon the student’s necessities, particular observations within the skill practice session, their own mutual action with the student, and what it will take to help the learning experience be worthwhile. By putting forth for consideration and testing hypotheses, the person who promotes could get closer to selecting a learning edge for students. Thinking creatively and other skills of a reflective teacher and the results are summarized in the following graph.
Five skills involved an explanation which gives a reason for observed phenomena testing, unifying learning and pushing students to a new learning method. Working at the learning edge can slightly cause discomfort, so measuring with students to experience success and identify their own power strengthens students’ ability to take risks and push their skill development further. Working in a dynamic manner with each of these teaching methods moved teachers and students toward more perception into their teaching and learning behaviors, correspondingly. Between the small groups that worked together to a high degree, students were able to try practices that were quite new to them. If a new method did not work the first or second time, each student could reflect on what was difficult and extract suggestions and support from her or his peers and members. Taking higher risks was connected with the teacher’s ability to kindly motivate students while pushing them, building the sense that the teacher was on the student’s side and increasing confidence between the group.
This article suggests that future work with teaching, teaching development, and educational mediation should be present in a place to reflective practices. expressing the slightly varied skills of effective teaching will help educational teaching and faculty development efforts as we achieve a better understanding of what experienced teachers have done.
With this article, we have developed a five skills observation and hypothetically informed model of teaching that provides students with a better level of teaching skills beyond the basics. Reflection and reflective teaching are often discussed in the classrooms, but rarely operationalized such that other teachers can take up the practices. This article, suggested almost five fundamental teaching skills that show student centered, reflective teaching practices that provide a process-oriented any object comprised of parts adapted or united together for teaching skills with both cognitive and affective components.