CHAPTER – ONE INTRODUCTION 1

CHAPTER – ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction:
HRM cycle as well as in any organization, training and development program plays an important and vital role in achieving organizational mission, goals and objectives. Training and development is the major factor that has a critical impact in hiring and retaining superior human resources. Training and development is one of the most vital activities of HRM. Training and development is the only device to make the human resources effective in any organization. Training and development is a continuous process and effective growth of the organization that we mean depends on the proper utilization of human resource. To stay competitive in the industry, we need advance technology, new product, new method or working process and innovative research. So we need proper application of our theoretical knowledge to get some benefits and make it more faithful. To apply the theoretical knowledge in the practical working area internship program plays the eventual role.

1.2. Background of the Study:
Internship Program is a mandatory program for all students of MBA under Daffodil International University. Practical orientation is positive development in professional area. For the completion of this internship program, I have chosen a bank named “Grameen Bank” and my internship report is based on “Training and Development Program of Grameen Bank”. I have prepared this report under Professor Dr. Farid A. Sobhaniat Daffodil International University. In the study period mainly students’ gain theoretical knowledge but now a days, in the job market there is no substitute of practical work experience. This program gives the students the real life flavor ; thereby helps to launch a career with some prior experience
1.3. Scope of the study:
Since I have worked in the Grameen Bank, Mirpur -2 ,Head office, I get the opportunity to gain knowledge of different parts of banking activities of Grameen Bank. The present study aims to assess the level of training and development programs of the employees of the Grameen Bank. The employees belong to different categories such as officers, clerical staff and sub-staff. The study explores level of training and development among employees working in the Grameen Bank and examines it in organizational context, such as, rewards, promotion policies, working conditions, career development, inter-relationships etc.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

1.4. Objectives of the Study:
There are two types of objectives, which are-
1.4.1 Broad objective
1.4.2 Specific objectives
1.4.1 Broad objective:
The broad objective of the study is to discuss the Training and Development Program of Grameen Bank.

1.4.2 Specific objectives
The following aspects can be listed as the specific objectives for the practical orientation in Grameen Bank.”
To know about the training & development program of Grameen Bank;
To identify the methods used to provide training in Grameen Bank;
To know the opinion of employees about training program of Grameen Bank;
To identify the problems of training & recommend some measures to make it more effective;
1.5. Methodology of the Study:
The report was fully exploratory in nature. Data have been collected from both primary and secondary sources.
Primary data:
Face to face conversation with the Bank officers and staffs.

Informal conversation with the clients.

Secondary source:
The majority of the information was collected from the secondary sources, which include books, publication, reading materials and various circulars and reporters, published by Grameen Bank. The researchers have also collected information from Grameen Bank website (www.Grameen Bank.com)
1.6 Limitations of the Study:
However some of the limitations faced while preparing this report are shown below:
Time limitation: To complete the study time was limited by three months. It was really very short time to know about an organization like Grameen Bank.

Inadequate Data: The unwillingness of the busy key persons, necessary data collection became hard.

Lack of Record: Large scale research was not possible due to constrains and restrictions posed by the organization. Unavailability of sufficient written documents as required making a comprehensive study. In many cases up to date information was not available.

Lack of Experiences: Lack experiences have acted as constraints in the way of meticulous exploration of the topic. Being the temporary member of the organization, it is not possible on my part to express some of the sensitive issues.

Connectivity with Study: The study may not give exact result as it is a study of our learning process.

Restriction of Collection of Information: Again for formalities constraints allowance was restricted. That’s why information shortage occurred.

CHAPTER- TWO
AN OVERVIEW OF GRAMEEN BANK
2.1 Background of the Grameen Bank:
The origin of Grameen Bank can be traced back to 1976 when Professor Muhammad Yunus, Head of the Rural Economics Program at the University of Chittagong, launched an action research project to examine the possibility of designing a credit delivery system to provide banking services targeted at the rural poor. The Grameen Bank Project Grameen means “rural” or “village” in Bangla language came into operation with the following objectives: extend banking facilities to poor men and women, eliminate the exploitation of the poor by money lenders; create opportunities for self-employment for the vast multitude of unemployed people in rural Bangladesh; bring the disadvantaged, mostly the women from the poorest households, within the fold of an organizational format which they can understand and manage by themselves; and reverse the age-old vicious circle of “low income, low saving ; low investment”, into virtuous circle of “low income, injection of credit, investment, more income, more savings, more investment, more income”. The action research demonstrated its strength in Jobra (a village adjacent to Chittagong University) and some of the neighboring villages during 1976-1979. With the sponsorship of the central bank of the country and support of the nationalized commercial banks, the project was extended to Tangail district (a district north of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh) in1979. With the success in Tangail, the project was extended to several other districts in the country. In October 1983, the Grameen Bank Project was transformed into an independent.

2.2 Vision of the Grameen Bank:
The vision of Grameen Bank is “Banking for the poor people”
2.3 Mission of the Grameen Bank:
“By providing comprehensive financial services, empowering the poor to realize their potential and break out of the vicious cycle of poverty”.
2.4 Goal and Objectives of the Grameen Bank:
The goal, which is proclamation by the GB, is poverty alleviation mentioning the credit as the most powerful instrument of engine of development, if has been providing group –based credit facilities to the poorest section of rural society for the creation of self- employment and income generating activities. The objectives, which are spiffed by the GB, are mentioned here: –
To empower the rural poor especially the women who are seriously neglected and ignored, through creation of self-employment opportunities and freedoms of them.

To provide financial services exclusively to the poorest section of rural area which is excluded from the formal credit institutions.

To rescue the poor people from the informal moneylenders who arte exalting them by charging exorbitant rate of interest of credit.

To provide organizational support to the disadvantage people for better use of credit and income as well.

To develop human capital in the rural areas through providing developmental programs regarding education, health, nutrition, disaster management etc.

To mobilize savings as a part of future nope for poor.

To reduce rural unemployment and dependency rat by offering self-employment opportunities. In rural non-farm sector.

Extend banking facilities to rural bottom poor, without any collateral.

Eliminate the exploitation of money lenders.

Reverse the age-old vicious cycle of poverty through small credit.

Provide self-employment opportunities for the unemployed.

Extend banking facilities to poor men and women.

2.5 Strategies of the Grameen Bank: There are some strategies of the Grameen Bank. They are given below:
Strategies for Poverty Reduction.

Strategies for Financial Intermediation.

Grameen’s Success as a Bank in Reaching the Poor.

Grameen’s Success in Poverty Reduction.

Grameen’s Sustainability.

Grameen’s Reliability.

Grameen Bank Increase women self dependent.

Grameen Bank given the loan any bond.

2.6 Organogram of the Grameen Bank:

Source: Grameen Bank Booklet
2.7 Functional Department on Grameen Bank:
There are some functional Department of the Grameen Bank. They can given below
1. Grameen Telecom2. Grameen Communications3. Grameen Cyber net Ltd.4. Grameen Software Ltd.5. Grameen IT Park6. Grameen Information Highways Ltd.7. Grameen Star Education Ltd.8. GrameenBitek Ltd.9. GrameenShamogree (Products)10. Grameen Sheikh (Education)11. Grameen Capital Management Ltd.12. Grameen Byabosa Bikash (Business Promotion )13.Grameen Trust
2.8 Grameen Bank products and services:
Grameen Bank claims to be different from conventional banks in that it provides loans to the poor, who are otherwise seen as not credit-worthy and this entrepreneurship can lift a person, family and society up from poverty and into a self-sufficient, productive work-force. The following are quick notes Grameen Bank products and conditions.

2.8 Grameen Products and services:
2.8.1: Basic Loan
10K to 15K taka per new borrower
granted for any activity that generates income
Interest rate: 20% on a declining basis.
Equivalent to 10% if installments are paid on time – weekly payment installment.

A Micro-Enterprise Loan: up to 300K taka (after 3 years of membership).

2.8.2 Flexible Loan
Granted while in probation for non- payment: flexible to basic.

Cannot borrow more until flexible loan is paid.

2.8.3 Housing Loan
granted upon 3years of successful basic loan
interest rate: 8% on declining basis
2.8.4 Higher Education Loan
granted to children of borrowers
after 12th grade
interest rate: 5%: no interest during cu
social objective over income generation
up to 5K taka with no interest charge
2.8 Saving Products:
claims to have higher interest than other banks
savings are from borrowers and non-borrowers
2.8.1 Personal Savings
Open to all nationals; Deposit and withdraw at anytime
8.5 % interest
Every borrower has savings (with a min of 10 to 20 taka deposit weekly required).

2.8.2 Grameen Pension Scheme
Borrower and employee / monthly deposit
5 year scheme (at 10% interest)
10 year scheme (at 12% interest)
Less than one year (no interest); <3year (8% interest); 3-5 years(10% interest)
Compounded interest (this appears to be a losing venture for the bank)
2.8.3 Fixed Deposit
open to all
1 year scheme (8.75% interest)
2 year scheme (9.25% interest)
3year scheme (9.5% interest)
2.8.4 Double in 7year
open to all
10.4% interest or double in 7 years
2.8.5 Monthly Profit Scheme
open for both members
fixed
1000K taka will receive 850 taka profit
2.8.6 Loan Insurance Savings
Deposit, with no interest paid
Purpose: wife 3% from loan amount and additional 3% for husband, if death occurs, 100% of loan is paid by fund.

2.8.7 Defaulted Loans
written off loans go to memorandum by provision with collection attempt: half to provision / half to income
Provision: after 10 weeks of non-payment, 100% provision.

2.9 SWOT Analysis of Grameen Bank:
SWOT analysis is an important tool for evaluating the company’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. It helps the organization to identify how to evaluate its performance and can scan the macro environment, which is turn would help the organization to navigate in the turbulence Ocean of competition. Following is given the SWOT analysis of Grameen bank.

2.9.1 Strengths
1. Creator of service himself has a personal experience and feel of being with the customers. Muhammad Yunus himself being a resident of the Jobra village know exactly the problem that the community was facing and hence he could very well cater to the needs of the destitute by providing them tailor-made lending services which can maintain a balance between their earnings and repayment rates.

2. The biggest strength of Grameen Bank lies in bringing financial services to poor people and making it financial sustainable by the economies of scale effect.
3.Grameen banks not only provides credit to its borrowers but also helps them grow their small business and helps them learn the basic principles of healthy living and grows along with the customers. This helps in the creation of loyal customers to the bank.

2.9.2 Weaknesses
Grameen Bank suffers from various weaknesses.

1. It has been reported that female recipients of Grameen loans have experienced a higher levels of violence.

2.  There are also reports that the group-lending strategy implemented by Grameen has led to greater conflict and violence between families.

2.9.3 Opportunities
1. It has microfinance business.

2. It has scope of market penetration through diversified products and wide banking network.

2.9.4 Threats:
1. Grameen has one particularly powerful threat: The Bangladeshi governing party, The Awami League.
2. It has increased competition for the market for public deposits.

3. Market share for lowering interest rate.

CHAPTER – THREE
THEORETICAL ASPECTS
3.1 Human Resource Management
Human resource management is an important part of any business. HRM is useful to companies because it is what keeps employees motivated and helps the company achieve goals. It will also outline how human resource management plays an important role in the strategic planning in an organization. HRM aids a company in shaping it employee base and eventually the overall the success of the company. Human Resource Management is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment, management and providing direction for the people who work in an organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers. Human Resource Management involves the planning, organizing, directing and controlling the functions of procuring, developing, maintaining and motivating a labor force.
According to R. W. Griffin, “Human resource Management is the set of organizational activities directed at attracting, developing and maintaining an effective workforce.”
According to Robbins & DeCenzo, “Human resource management is concerned with the ‘people’ dimension in management. Since every organization is made up of people, acquiring their services, developing their skills, motivating them to high levels of performance, and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organization are essential to achieving organizational objectives.”
Organizations also perform HRM functions and tasks by outsourcing various components to outside suppliers and vendors.

3.2 Objectives of Human Resource Management:
Four basic objectives are common to Human Resource Management. The objectives can be as under:
Organizational Objectives: HRM is a means to achieve efficiency and effectiveness. It serves other functional areas, so as to help them to attain efficiency in their operations and attainment of goals to attain efficiency.

Functional Objectives: To maintain the department’s contribution at a level appropriate to the organization’s needs.
Societal Objectives: To be ethically and socially responsive to the needs and challenges of society while the negative impact of such demands on the organization.

Personal Objectives: To assist employees in achieving their personal goals, to get their commitment. Creating work life balance for the employees is a personal objective.
3.3 Function of Human Resource Management
(1) Acquisition of Human Resource (Getting people)(2) Training and Development of Human Resource (preparing people)(3) Motivation of Human Resource (Stimulating people)(4) Maintenance of Human Resources (Keeping them)
10191750
Figure: Function of HRM
3.3.1 Acquisition of Human Resource: There are two steps involved in acquisition process
Recruitment: Recruitment is a process by which organizations locate and attract individuals to fill job vacancies. There are mainly two sources of recruitment:-
Internal &
External
Promotion from within an organization is called internal source and recruiting new people from outside the organization is known as an external source.

De-recruitment: On the other hand, de-recruitment is a process to reduce workforce to make a balance between demand and supply of employee. If HR planning shows a surplus of employees, managers may want to reduce the workforce through de-recruitment, which is not a pleasant task for any manager. De-recruitment options may include firing, layoffs, attrition, transfer, early retirement and job sharing.

Selection: Once the recruiting effort has developed a pool of candidates, the next step in the HRM process is to determine who is the best qualified for the job. Selection is a process of hiring suitable people for the job. It is the process of screening job applicants to ensure that the most appropriate candidates are hired. The right man for the right job is the main goal of selection. Selection device must be valid and reliable. Managers can use a number of selection devices to reduce errors. The best known selection devices are applicable forms, written tests, interviewing, medical test, references or background investigations, and final decision of hiring.

Placement: Placement is the assignment or reassignment of duties to an employee. It may take different forms such as promotion, transfer, demotion, and termination.

Orientation: It is a process of getting new employees acquainted with the organization, its culture, rules and regulation, objectives and supervisors and other employees. It is the act of introducing new employees to the organization and their work units. Many organizations have formal orientation programs, which might include a tour of the work facilities, a PowerPoint presentation describing the history of the organization. It is important because it helps the new employee to adapt to new situations.

Training: It is a continuous process of helping employees to perform at a high level. It is a process of acquiring new skills to do the job properly. Training changes and modifies employee attitudes and behaviors that will improve his ability to perform on the job. To be effective, a training program must accomplish a number of objectives.

Job Evaluation: It is a process of measuring and determining the value of each job in relation to all jobs within the organization. Jobs are ranked in order to arrive at each job’s appropriate worth. It is the basis of designing a well-balanced compensation program. The widely used methods of job evaluation are ranking method, classification method, point rating method, and factor comparison method.

Performance Appraisal: It is process in an organization whereby each employee is evaluated to determine how he or she is performing. Employee may be appraised against absolute standards, or relative standards. The performance appraisal process consists of six steps:
Establish performance standards
Communicate performance expectations to employees
Measure actual performance
Compare actual performance with standards
Discuss the appraisal results with the employee if necessary and
Initiate corrective action
Managers can choose different performance appraisal methods such as written essays, critical incidents, graphic rating scales, behaviorally anchored rating scales, MBO and 360 degree feedback.

Compensation: Compensation is the reward or price for labor. The goal of compensation administration is to design the lowest-cost pay structure that will attract, motivate and retain competent employees, and that also will be perceived as fair by these employees.

Collective Bargaining: Collective bargaining is the negotiation, administration and interpretation of a written agreement between two parties; at least one of which represents a group that is acting collectively, that covers a specific period of time.

3.3.2 Development of Human Resource: After selecting and recruiting individuals in the right position of the organization, the next function is to train and develop them, so that they can become efficient employees and work toward the achievement of the organization goal.

3.3.3 Motivation of Human Resource: The motivation function is one of the most important functions. After training and developing the employees the HR manager should stimulate them to work well. For motivation purpose the HR manager have to give the employees some compensation and benefit package.

3.3.4 Maintenance of Human Resource: The last phase of the HRM function is called the maintenance function. For maintaining the people HRM should go for some method of providing a safe and healthy work place, labor relation & collective bargaining.

3.4 Definition of Training and Development:
3.4.1 Training:
Training is a process of achieving the knowledge to improve the current work skills and behavior.

According to Edwin Flippo, “Training is the act of increasing the skills of an employee for doing a particular job”
3.4.2 The Training Cycle which includes:

Figure: Training cycle
Establishing the skill requirements and the subsequent training needs of the workforce.

The design of the most suitable events and most effective training methods for your organization
Delivery of the training with additional support for any open learning aspects.
Evaluation and validation of the training event to ensure that you achieve identifiable and cost effective business improvements from the development of your staff
3.4.3 Development:
Development is a learning process to improve the managerial knowledge that helps to improve the performance of future activities.

According to Gray Dessler “Development means any attempt to improve future management performance imparting knowledge, changing attitude or increasing skills”
3.4.4 Training and Development:
468334373209
Training for Individuals: Some training are designed only for the individuals, for those the employees are individually responsible for their own development.

Training for teams: Trainings served for teams, when team performance is necessary.
Training for organizations: organizational training that may contain creating fair and productive organizational environment, developing knowledge sharing culture inside the organization.

3.5 Features of Training and Development:
Many authors defined training in different view or aspect. Such definition are many but quite sufficient to reveal the important characteristics of training. A close look at them shows the following important features:
Here are 5 key features your employee training program needs to have to be effective for the modern workforce. 
3.5.1 Use the best trainers
Learn from the best. You want your employees to emulate the best trainers. Choosing the wrong trainers can actually hurt you employees’ business performance if they lose interest in the training or are trained incorrectly. If you’re limited to only a few great trainers, you can easily replicate their great training through video.

3.5.2 Include more than you need too
Go above and beyond simply training each employee for their specific role. Employees will be better equipped to assist others, exceed expectations and handle new responsibilities better when they are equipped with more knowledge.

3.5.3 Make it scalable
Make sure your program is built to expand. Sending in-person training is antiquated, difficult to grow and extremely costly. Use the Internet and mobile training applications to easily distribute training to as many employees as you need and easily share with new employees when they join. Scalable programs can also reduce costs. By using mobile training applications to make virtual copies of their training, the USDA saved over $1 million for training on one application.

3.5.4 Make it accessible
Make sure your employees can access the training you provide at anytime. What’s the point of providing great training when employees will forget most of it anyway? Employee handbooks and DVDs were the old way of providing accessible information. Nowadays you can use video to replicate training sessions and distribute the information for employees to access anytime. Supplemental materials, beyond the core training, can also be made easily available through video.

3.5.5 Verify understanding and ask for feedback
If your company is going to invest in training, make sure your employees are enjoying and absorbing the information. Maybe you are providing the wrong training, not enough training or maybe your employees become qualified enough to take on new responsibilities. You will never know without the proper feedback methods. At Retrieve, we integrated certifications and support into our training applications because our customers wanted to make sure the information they provided was as effective as possible.
3.6 Reason for Training and Development:
Workers are helped to focus, and priority is placed on empowering employees.

Productivity is increased, positively affecting the bottom line.

Employee confidence is built, keeping and developing key performers, enabling team development and contributing to better team/organization morale. 
Employees are kept current on new job-related information, thereby contributing significantly to better customer service.

Employees are updated on new and enhanced skills, with a view to aligning them to business goals and objectives.

After a downsizing, remaining workers are given the technical and management skills to handle increased workloads.

Companies with business problems are given a fresh or unbiased professional opinion or exploration, evaluation, or critique.

Job satisfaction, employee motivation and morale are increased, reducing employee turnover.

Processes increase in efficiency, resulting in financial gain.

3.7 General Benefits of Employee from Training and Development:
The different benefits of training are:
Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees.

Increased employee motivation.

Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain.

Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods.

Increased innovation in strategies and products.

Reduced employee turnover.

Enhanced company image.

Risk management.
3.8 Importance of Training and Development:
Communications: The increasing diversity of today’s workforce brings a wide variety of languages and customs.

Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting administrative and office tasks.

Customer service: Increased competition in today’s global marketplace makes it critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers.

Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have different perspectives and views, and includes techniques to value diversity
Ethics: Today’s society has increasing expectations about corporate social responsibility. Also, today’s diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and morals to the workplace.

Human relations: The increased stresses of today’s workplace can include misunderstandings and conflict. Training can people to get along in the workplace.

Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Quality Circles, benchmarking, etc., require basic training about quality concepts, guidelines and standards for quality, etc.

3.9 Other Importance:
To develop the skills of human resource.

To prepare the employee as a valuable assets.

To create positive attitude towards responsibilities.

To provide necessary information to the management.

To reduce accident.

To control wastage.

Development of human relation.

To increase job satisfaction.

3.10 Training Methods:
There are two types of training methods. They are given below

Figure: Training Methods
3.10.1 On-the-job Training Methods:
On-the-job Training allows employees to learn by actually performing a specific job or task. The employee will perform the job and learn as he goes. On-the-job training can be structured by using hands-on application supported by classroom-type instruction. Important methods include:-
1. Coaching
2. Mentoring
3. Job Rotation
4. Job Instructional Technique (JIT):
6. Understudy
Coaching: Coaching is a one-to-one training. It helps in quickly identifying the weak areas and tries to focus on them. It also offers the benefit of transferring theory learning to practice. The biggest problem is that it perpetrates the existing practices and styles. In India most of the scooter mechanics are trained only through this method.

Mentoring: The focus in this training is on the development of attitude. It is used for managerial employees. Mentoring is always done by a senior inside person. It is also one-to- one interaction, like coaching.

Job Rotation: It is the process of training employees by rotating them through a series of related jobs. Rotation not only makes a person well acquainted with different jobs, but it also alleviates boredom and allows to develop rapport with a number of people. Rotation must be logical.

Job Instructional Technique (JIT): It is a Step by step (structured) on the job training method in which a suitable trainer prepares a trainee with an overview of the job, its purpose, and the results desired, demonstrates the task or the skill to the trainee, allows the trainee to show the demonstration on his or her own, and follows up to provide feedback and help. The trainees are presented the learning material in written or by learning machines through a series called ‘frames’. This method is a valuable tool for all educators’ teachers and trainers. It helps us:
To deliver step-by-step instruction
To know when the learner has learned
To be due diligent (in many work-place environments)
Understudy: In this method, a superior gives training to a subordinate as his understudy like an assistant to a manager or director. The subordinate learns through experience and observation by participating in handling day-to-day problems. Basic purpose is to prepare subordinate for assuming the full responsibilities and duties
3.10.2. The advantages and disadvantages of these On-the-job Training Methods:
Advantages Disadvantages
1. Generally most cost-effective.

2. Employees are actually. Productive.

3. Opportunity to learn whilst doing
4. Training alongside real colleagues. 1. Quality depends on ability of trainer and time available.
2. Bad habits might be passed on.
3. Learning environment may not be conducive.
4. Potential disruption to production.
3.10.3 off-the-job Training Methods:
Off-the-job training methods are conducted in separate from the job environment, study material is supplied, there is full concentration on learning rather than performing, and there is freedom of expression. Important methods include:
1. Classroom lecture
2. Videos and films
3 .Simulation exercise
4. Case study Method:
6. outside seminars
7. University Related programs
Classroom lecture: Lectures designed to communicate specific interpersonal technical or problem solving skills.

Videos and films: Using various media production to demonstrate specialized skills that are not easily presented by other training methods.

Simulation exercise: Training that occurs by actually performing the work. This may include case analysis, role-playing and group decision making.

Case study Method: The case study method presents a trainee with a written description of an organizational problem. The person then analyzes the case diagnoses the problem and presents his findings and solutions in a discussion with other trainees.

Outside seminars: Many companies and universities offer web based and traditional management development seminars and conferences. For example, FBCCI arranges some short terms training on different business related areas.

University Related programs: Many universities and institutes provide executives education and continuing education Program in leadership supervision and the like.

3.10.4 Advantages and Disadvantages Off-the-job Training Methods:
Advantages
1. A wider range of skills or qualifications can be obtained.

2. Can learn from outside specialists or experts.

3. Employee can be more confident when starting job.

Disadvantages
1. More expensive – transport and accommodation
2. Lost working time and potential output from employee.

3. New employees may still need some induction training.

3.11. Difference between Training and Development:
Training: Training is a learning process in which employees get an opportunity to develop skill, competency and knowledge as per the job requirement.

Development: Development is an educational process in which the personnel of the organization get the chance to learn the in depth application of theoretical knowledge for their overall growth. It covers not only those activities which improve job performance but also those activities which improve the personality of an employee.

Basis for comparison Training Development
Term Training is a Short term process Development is a continuous &Long term process
Focus on Developing skill and knowledge for the current job Building knowledge, and competencies for overcoming future challenges
Concentrated towards Specific Job oriented Career oriented
Instructor Trainer Self directs himself for the future assignments
Objective To improve the work performances of the employees. To prepare employees for future challenges.

Number of individuals Many individuals Only one
Aim Specific job related Conceptual and general knowledge
3.12 Training Need Assessment Process:
3.12.1 Identifying training needs:
A training need assessment is used to determine whether training is the right solution to a work place problem. It is an ongoing process of gathering data to determine what training needs exists so that training can be developed ton help the organization accomplish its objectives. Training needs can be assessed by analyzing three major human resource areas. This analysis will provide answers to the following questions:
Who needs to be trained?
What skill must an employee learn in order to be more productive?
Where training is needed?
Training is needed when employees are not performing up to a certain standard or at expected levels of performance. The difference between actual the actual of job performance indicates a need for training. The need assessment of training and development programs are completed through a three phase process which are:
Organizational Analysis
Personal Analysis
Task Analysis
3.12.2 Organizational Analysis:
An analysis of the business needs or other reasons the training is desired. An analysis of the organization’s strategies, goals and objectives. What is the organization overall trying to accomplish? The important questions being answered by this analysis are who decided that training should be conducted.

3.12.3 Personal Analysis:
Person analysis helps to identify employees who need training that is whether employees’ current performance or expected performance indicates need for training. Identifies about the knowledge, skill, and abilities do trainees already have in order to participate in the training.

3.12.4 Task Analysis:
Task analysis results in a description of work activities, including tasks performed by the employee and the knowledge, skills, and abilities required to complete the tasks.

3.13 Steps of Training and Development:
3.13.1 Needs Analysis
Identify specific job performance skills needed to improve performance and productivity.

Analyze the audience to ensure that the program will be suited to their specific levels of education, experience, and skills, as well as their attitudes and personal motivations.

Use research to develop specific measurable knowledge and performance objectives.

3.13.2 Instructional Design
Gather instructional objectives, methods, media, description of sequence of content, examples, exercises, and activities. Organize them into a curriculum that supports adult learning theory and provides a blueprint for program development.

Make sure all materials, such as video scripts, leaders’ guides, and participants’ work-books, complement each other, are written clearly, and blend into unified training geared directly to the stated learning objectives.

Carefully and professionally handle all program elements – whether reproduced on paper, film, or tape – to guarantee quality and effectiveness.

3.13.3 Validation
Introduce and validate the training before a representative audience. Base final revisions on pilot results to ensure program effectiveness.

3.13.4 Implement the Program
When applicable, boost success with a train- the –trainer workshop that focuses on presentation knowledge and skills in addition to training content.

3.13.5 Evaluation
Assess program success according to:
Reaction – Document the learners’ immediate reactions to the training.

Learning – Use feedback devices or pre- and posttests to measure what learners have actually learned.

Behavior – Note supervisors’ reactions to learners’ performance following completion of the training. This is one way to measure the degree to which learners apply new skills and knowledge to their jobs.

Results – Determine the level of improvement in job performance and assess needed maintenance.

CHAPTER – FOUR
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM OF GRAMEEN BANK
Training and Development practices of Grameen Bank
4.1 Background of the Grameen Bank:
The Grameen Bank is a Nobel Peace Prize-winning microfinance organization and community development bank founded in Bangladesh. It makes small loans known as microcredit or “Grameen credit” to the impoverished without requiring collateral. The name Grameen is derived from the word gram which means “rural” or “village”. Grameen Bank originated in 1976, in the work of Professor Muhammad Yunus at University of Chittagong, who launched a research project to study how to design a credit delivery system to provide banking services to the rural poor.
Training means to train people to perform in the desired direction. Training is an organized activity aimed at imparting information or instructions to improve the recipients (entrants) or to help them attaining a required level of knowledge skill. Training increases knowledge develops skills and changes the attitude of the trainee’s employees. The activities of the Academy cover mainly the topics, like. Advanced investment management, advanced international Trade payment and Finance, Accounting for Bankers, Legal aspects of securities and documentation, Techniques of managing bank’s branches, Foundation course and others.

4.2 Grameen bank Training objectives:
The Grameen Bank believes that the best way for participants to learn about how the bank works is through first hand exposure and observations at the field level. Through these experiences, participants are encouraged to draw their own conclusions about the effectiveness of Grameen Bank’s work and the impact it has on the poorest of the poor. The objectives of GB’s training programs are to:
Arouse curiosity
Stimulate interest on the subject of Micro financing
Encourage responsibility of self-motivated learning
Learn and share with others
Discover individual role in the organization and the global community
4.3 Training Need Assessment of Grameen bank:
The purpose of a training needs assessment is to identify performance requirements and the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed by an agency’s workforce to achieve the requirements. A training needs assessment is a three steps process. Decide how to complete each type of analysis using these three phases:
Collect information
Analyze information
Developing a training plan
The need assessment of training and development programs are completed through a three phase process which are:
Personal analyze
Organizational analyze
Analyze of job requirement
Personal analysis: Personal analyze is a process for determining whether employees need training and whether employees are ready for training. The organization identifies about the knowledge, skills, and abilities do trainees already have in order to participate in the training.

Organizational analysis: Organizational analysis involves determining the business appropriateness of training given the organization business strategy.

Job analysis: In job analysis the bank, analyze job requirement for training by finding the job responsibilities, the skills, and knowledge are needed for successful performance.

4.4 Training and Development program of Grameen Bank:
Training refers to a planned effort a company to facilitate the learning of job-related knowledge, skills or behavior employees. The goal of training efforts is for employees to master the knowledge, skills or ability emphasized in training program and to apply it in here day-to-day activities. Training and development can be initiated to address a “performance gap” (learning needed to meet performance standards for a current task or job), “growth gap” (learning needed to achieve career goals) or “opportunity gap” (learning needed to qualify for an identified new job or role). Education is the process of increasing the level of knowledge and understanding. Training talks about ‘know-why’. Most of the organizations are concern about know-how of employees. They are most concerned with employee training. As I known, the Training Department of Grameen Bank is highly concern with continuous training and development of the employees.

4.5 Training methods followed by Grameen Bank:
Several methods can be used to satisfy on organization training needs and accomplish its objectives. The Grameen bank classified their training by two categories.

4.5.1 On-the-job Training Methods
On the job training is normally given by senior employee or manager on the job sites of the organization. The employee is shown how to perform the job is allowed to do it under trainer’s supervision. The various forms of on the job training include the following:
Job rotation: Job rotation involves moving employees to various positions in the organization in an effort to expand their skills, knowledge, and abilities. Job rotation can be either horizontal or vertical. Vertical rotation is nothing more than promoting a worker into a new position. Job rotation represents an excellent method for broadening an individual’s exposure to company operations and for turning a specialist into a generalist. In addition to increasing the individual’s experience allowing him or her to exposure new information. It can also provide opportunities for a more comprehensive and reliable evaluation of the employee by his or her supervisors.

Mentoring: Mentoring is more or less related to coaching. Mentoring follows when Grameen Bank has experienced manager, seniors and experts provides guidance, regulation and advice to any junior employee.

Apprenticeship Training: Apprenticeship training is a system in which an employee is given instruction by more experienced employee or employees in all the practical and theoretical aspects of the work required in a skilled occupation.

Job Instruction Technique: Job instruction technique uses a strategy with focus on knowledge (factual and procedural), skills and attitudes development.

4.5.2 Off-the-job training methods: Off-the-job training is provided at the Grameen bank institution. The common forms of off the job trainings are as follows:
a) Classroom training: Courses, Workshops these are formal training opportunities offered to employees either externally or internally. A trainer or facilitator who is an expert can be brought into Grameen Bank to provide the training session. The employee can either be sent to one of these learning opportunities during work time. Grameen Bank provides it within their own trainer some while they send outside or hire external for the new employees.

b)Conferences and seminars: Employees attend the conference that focuses on relevant topic that goes with their position. After this, the employees make their own presentation in enhancing the learning experience. Therefore, at the end of a specific period the employees call for a conference.

c)Lecture method: Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. It is a quick and simple way to provide knowledge to large groups of trainees as when the sales force needs to learn the special features of a new product.

d) Video presentation: At the end of training held video presentation where a trainee represents their presentation.

CHAPTER – FIVE
FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Major Findings:
Grameen bank provides both on the job training and off the training.

Grameen Bank employees are satisfied with the training contents of that organization.

Grameen Bank does not follow fixed schedule for the training and development program.

Employees are happy with the trainers training system.

Some employees are not satisfied with the training environment in Grameen bank.
5.2 Conclusions:
Grameen Bank is a statutory public authority, since it was established in 1983 under an Ordinance. It is neither a NGO nor a bank/a bank company/ a scheduled bank in traditional term. Although its micro credit activities are similar to that of an NGO, government possesses 25% ownership of that institution by law. The organization is much more structured compared to any other bank operating local or foreign in Bangladesh. It is relentless in pursuit of business innovation and improvement. It has a reputation as a partner of consumer growth.

Grameen Bank has become a large institution. From the very inception it plays a vital role in the national economy. Grameen Bank provides proper attention on every department including the human resources department and an important function of this HR department is training and development. Banking sectors no more depends on a traditional method of banking. In this competitive world, this sector has trenched its wings wide enough to cover any kind of financial service anywhere in this world.

From the phase of need assessment to evaluation of training, Grameen Bank tries to provide proper attention to enrich their employee’s skill for reaching in their desired goal. With the help of training and development programs, organization can improve its productivity and efficiency level to an utmost position.

Despite few of problems in training and development, section in Grameen Bank. It is improving employees and executives skills to reach the summit.

5.3 Recommendations:
As it is seen by all that, the organizational and individual objectives are corresponding. The accomplishment of both organizational and individual objectives can be directed by training programs. Training and development make it possible through optimizing utilization of human resources that will inspire the employees to attain the organizational goals as well as their individual goals.

By studying and analyzing the current position of Grameen Bank training and development program, some problems are identified. So in this regard some recommendations can be given-
Grameen Bank should maintain the training schedule regularly.

Training environment of Grameen Bank should be improved.

5.4 Bibliographies:
Books:
1. Mohiuddin Md. “Human Resource Management” 6th edition, India, Replika press Pvt. Ltd, 2011
2. Raymond A. Noe and Kodwani Anitabh Doe, “Employee training and development” 5th edition, Tata McGraw Hill Education Pvt. Ltd.

Reports and Documents:
Annual report of Grameen Bank 2014
Websites:
www.Grameen Bank.comwww.Grameen.comAppendices