Case given figure below shows the legal routing and

Study: – Analysis
effects of Grey Traffic in Pakistan and how much it cost


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Grey traffic is an illegal way of
telecommunication which is legal from one country but illegal from another
country. Legitimate routing is used for legal international voice calls but by using
grey traffic an international caller can use internet protocol (IP) for voice
traffic routing instead of legitimate routing. An international caller is able
to avoid taxes and regular fee. According to Pakistan telecommunication
Authority (PTA) (Atif Khan, 2016) bypassing the international
legal traffic gateway is an illegal act which is achieved through voice over IP
(VoIP), Global System for Mobile application (GSM) and other related
equipment’s are used to avoid  taxes and
regular fee. So we analyse grey traffic effect in Pakistan that how an
international call becomes illegal at destination country and how much it cost
Pakistan. According to a Dawn article (Khawar Ghumman, 2014), grey traffic costing Pakistan $1bn every year and
within two years the number of international incoming calls has reduced from
two billion minutes to 500 million minutes per month which has great
opportunity for intruders using grey traffic in the country with illegal
telephone exchange used. The given figure below shows the legal routing and
illegal routing voice calls way of communication.


Figure 1Legal vs Illegal Routing of
International Calls

Legal Routing: –

an international caller calls from a country A and this call operates on A core
network then these international voice calls are passed through Least cost
route (LCR) which are legitimate routing of international voice calls to
generate the taxes and regular fee on that call. Then LCR forward international
voice calls to another country B operator B core network to call receiver. 

Illegal Routing:

illegal routing an international call comes from a country A which operates on
the core network of A and is received by a Fraudulent least cost route (FLCR)
rather than least cost route (LCR) through voice over IP (VoIP), to Sim box then
these Sim boxes turn international calls into a local call. These illegal calls
called grey traffic.

Pakistan faces large revenue losses, poor voice quality and degraded quality of
service due to increase use of grey traffic.


In telecommunication we have
different ways of communication to communicate different peoples on different
locations. The different communication ways are white, black and grey route.

White Route- In this way of communication both
callers and receivers end are legal.

Black Route- In this way of communication both
callers and receivers end are illegal.

Grey Route- In this way of communication over
voice of IP (VoIP) one end is legal and the other end is illegal.

According to a Dawn article (Jamal Shahid, 2015), the Ministry of
Information Technology Secretary Azmat Ali Ranjha said the use of grey traffic
is increased after Pakistan government introduced international clearing house
policy (ICH) in October 2012.So supreme court of Pakistan in June 2014 describe
illegal international clearing house (ICH) and ordered to withdraw.


Analyse the effects of Grey Traffic
in Pakistan and how much it cost.


1-    IP Blocking

According to PTA (Pakistan Telecommunication Authority, 2014) published an advertisement to register the Virtual
Private Network (VPN) otherwise the unregistered network IP addresses will be  blocked to reduce the use of grey traffic.

But there is no use of
blocking the IP address. People used different software’s to unblock the
blocked websites like spot flux. In case of blocking YouTube in 2012, spot flux
became the most popular application.

2-    Pakistan Telecommunication Authority Raids

According to PTA (Khawar Ghumman, 2014) does many raid against the users of grey traffic to
reduce the use of grey traffic. But the usage of grey traffic is continued
because of less strict rules and laws.

3-    Use of Bio Metric sims

The use of grey traffic
is decreased when Pakistan government introduced Bio Metric technology to
register the unregistered sim users. With the help of bio metric technique the
grey traffic is decreased 70% according to (Jamal Shahid, 2015) so international calls
increase from 400 million minutes to 1.4 billion minutes per month in six

a.    Advantages

i.    Identify the users

ii.    Identify users location

iii.    Terminate the
unauthorized users

b.    Disadvantages

i.    But unable to find the
intruder on Voice over IP (VoIP)

ii.    Unable to find the Sim

These techniques are good but not
enough to eliminate the grey box routing but we have a method to eliminate the
grey traffic completely with the help of Call Data Record (CDR) used in Hadoop
infrastructure to identify the grey traffic users and eliminate all of them.

Solution: –

infrastructure to Extract Grey Traffic patterns using CDR:-

We collect and feed call data record (CDR) to Hadoop

Then we can use Hadoop Hive data warehouses to store
the CDR and other data.

Scripting language such as Python can be used to
extract features.

Then we connect Hive to any tool like Business
intelligence (BI), Qlik sense, MS power BI.

Collect results from BI tool. 


2 Used CDR and Used Machine learning
algorithms to Extract Grey Traffic



Detect Sim Boxes

Instantly block the fraudulent SIM’s

Use IMSI catcher to locate the fraudulent IMEIs

Identify cells with SIM Box locations

Real-time business intelligence

Drill down to low level information up to CDR’s