By wild vegetables and the hunting of small animals

By definition Human Ecology is the interrelationship between humans and their social, economic and political organisation. Culture on the other hand  are the ideas, beliefs and humans behaviour in a particular society that are passed on from generation to generation. 
In a tribal society there are three kinds of technological adaptations: hunter-gatherers and postal nomads which shall be tackled in this assignment, and tropical horticulturalists.
Unfortunately hunter-gatherers who would have provided an adequate amount of information about their Palaeolithic past did not live long enough to be recorded by anthropologists. Most modern hunter-gatherers had access to recent technological advances. 
There is a vast difference between those people who are dependent on hunting only and those that depend on wild vegetable foods. Gathering becomes the main way of getting your food which has a big effect on social structures and economy. As far as economy is concern theres only a vague idea  as they are always on the move in order to survive. In the twentieth century in the temperate zone few hunting gathering people survived and therefore we lack most of the information regarding it. 
Many of us have probably had the idea that survival by hunting is a hard and exhausting life but this may not be the case. Given their way of life although they do not possess materialistic objects they do have enough spare time. 
The term “man the hunter” given to hunter-gatherers is fairly ill-judged when referring to modern hunter-gatherers. Taking into example places such as South Africa and Malaysia the collecting of wild vegetables and the hunting of small animals is done by the woman and it is considered as a main duty in their everyday living. Hunter-gatherers such as the San rely mostly on fruits, nuts, seeds and smoother vegetable food an the collecting of these is done by the woman and hence they are the base for their survival. Hunting of bigger animals is then done by the male population mainly because of their bigger physique and because they are not so responsible with the raising of young children. Close cooperation is essential for these types of groups, they cannot survive without it. With such close cooperation and this constant mobility the social structure is dominated by small groups.
Hunter-gatherers are very much like ourselves, but without the complexity of todays modern societies. In a world where there is no male and female power or the importance for status, there is no place for sexual inequality among them. 
When we talk about the social organisation of hunter-gatherers we usually use the patrilocal band. The men stay in the hunting territory where they grew up as they have already adopted to that type of environment and therefore know everything to protect that territory from birth. Women on the other hand leave the band after marriage and therefore changing their foraging grounds. 
The Shashani of Nevada is one example with a very simple and close connected social organisation. Their environment is extremely harsh and therefore are required to constantly move from one place to the other. When resources were hugely scarce they usually joined up with another family, mostly ones that were united with marriages with them, to share. 
In hunter-gathering groups that had a larger population, their political systems was more elaborate and formal than the smaller groups. In populations which are smaller power is mainly based on their own personal leadership.
Unlike human beings living in a technological world, hunter-gatherers do not try to control the forces of nature around them. On the contrary they give a huge importance to nature and live one with nature. They know that nature is above humans and we cannot control it. The urge to try to act above everything else and control nature itself has ultimately put the human planet in dangers that were not there. 
Pastoralism represents a mixed between agriculture and herding in order for them to adopt to the dry grasslands. Seasonal migration was often required for pastoral nomads. This meant that there had to be seasonal movement along with their farm animals between summer and winter. Although it is agriculture that bring about many changes to the organisation of society, herding provided adaptation for areas where farming was restricted. 
Sedentary pastoralists are fixed in one region while the Nomadic Pastoralists move around from one place to another in order to find the resources they need to live but the movement between them has historically been common. Fully nomadic people still do not show full liberty from settled communities. In times where they need help settled communities provide refuge for them. 
Production is centred amongst the family groups. Sheep and goats supply them with milk meat and wool which is essential for their survival especially the Basseri Nomads. The Basseri migrate in shifting groups and the seasonal migration goes according to the physical environment they live in. For transportation they require horses, donkeys and camels and each and every family has their own. 
However nomadic groups are also joined in by other communities mainly through exchanges, alliances regarding herding that are only temporary and marital alliances. 
In this type of society they do not give a huge importance to equality between the sexes or between children and the elderly but they do give it to the male heads in different domestic unity. They do not believe that wealth gives you more importance but rather your place in the given system does. 
In conclusion hunter-gatherers as their name shows rely mostly on hunting. There’s a great deal of democracy in their groups. A huge amount of consensus and when they are fed up of one group they can leave and join another. They are organised into patrilocal bands and nature is very important to them so much so that they treat it as above them. 
Pastoralists are then seasonal migrators, they do not have any permanent household or possessions. Inequalities can develop and are a possibility. Pastoralists’ lives is mainly shaped around food, water, their herd and climate as it shapes most of their ecology.