Boston gangs are identified and analyzed in Boston areas







Boston Gangs

Matthew Coulter

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University of Colorado Colorado Springs















Boston Gangs


            From the increased cases of gang
violence in the neighborhoods within Boston, Massachusetts, the need for
intervention have been enhanced among various groups, like police officers,
anti-crime organizations, and communities. Law enforcement has consistently
engaged the criminal offenders and crime families in running battles to stop
the possible influence and harm to others. Through the gained experiences,
observations, knowledge, and historical perception of the police force in addressing issues of gang
violence can be used in the development of strategies, understanding, and
intervention on problems associated with crime. Using the empirical data, the information
collected on gangsters can be used in the capture and organization of the
experiential results. In the paper, the description of how the gangs are
identified and analyzed in Boston areas is carried out with the help of local,
state and federal departments to enhance the development of problem-solving
techniques. Besides, the involvement of the youths in gun violence is
emphasized in the study since they are the major perpetrators of the crimes in
the study. The participants in the study involved university students, police
officers from Boston, probation officers in the neighborhood, and street
workers, who helped in the estimation of the gang population, antagonism and
alliances. The outcome of the exercises will allow for the development of an
image on the Boston’s gang territory, predict their engagement in high-risk
activities, the creation of a pattern for
their associations and explicit contribution in the youth victimized of
homicide cases.

Review of Literature

Through the
demonstration, implementation and analysis of
the causes and effects of gang violence provide
an effective mechanism for mapping and networking of
their relationships. Such a consideration is vital in understanding and
intervening on the crimes and problems associated with public safety. According
to Klein (2009), the modern policing
techniques have provided new methods of investigating gang violence through
spatial analysis and crime mapping that has been adopted by the Boston’s police
department. Evidence of the traditional manual crime pin maps and traffic
accidents have been improved by the current mapping techniques through the
incorporation of computerized or automated mapping. The use of modern
technologies in crime mapping by police agencies has been expanded in the
United States to enhance the development of a more extensive problem-solving
approach to crime and gang violence. The mechanism has also simplified the
increased academic concern on the state of Boston security, is one of the highly concentrated crime scenes.
The issue of gangs in Boston has been given a national attention that can be
evident from the significant advances to adopt the microcomputer technology in
mapping gangs and their violence in the area. The development of the mapping
software has been utilized in most of the police departments associated with
the Law Enforcement Management Information Section (Trump, 2010). Furthermore,
academic research has been a key instrument in the proliferation of crime
mapping and spatial analyses within the police departments due to the formation of partnerships in the implementation
and assessment of the urban crime problems. Such a move has been effective in
the development of effective analytic systems as seen in the gang-affected regions,
like Chicago, New Jersey.

Methodology and findings

The process of decision-making within the
policing agencies varies depending on the role of the user in the application
of the mapping techniques and spatial analyses. For example, the police
administrators and planner will utilize the maps to enhance informed decisions
on the deployment of the officers, like
the number of patrol cars and officers to be assigned a particular district of
the shift (Ralphs & Smithson, 2015).
Besides, the police investigators and detectives often use mapping technologies
to determine the crime locations and patterns in developing a problem-solving
strategy on crimes. The incorporation of
the problem-solving model by the police
has helped the patrol officers to utilize the maps in the identification of
troubled and gang spots within their jurisdiction. The theoretical framework
will also allow the law enforcers to know when the affected areas or streets
are most active. The efficiency of the strategy has been supported by the
Chicago police department’s program on Information Collection for Automated Mapping. Through the mechanism,
the Chicago’s department has demonstrated effectiveness in the display of the
current gangs and conditions in the community that enable the police officers
to adopt custom crime maps in adhering to top criminal problem at a glance.

The use of computerized mapping techniques
has been utilized in the identification crime-related problems and development
of programs towards crime control and prevention. Such a mechanism has been
recognized by several researchers and scholar as a problem-solving technique to
Boston gangs (Zhang, 2011). Currently, mapping application has been utilized in
the support of the region-specific diagnoses and interventions, which makes the
focus on Boston relevant. The geographical characterization of the maps has
been merged with empirical data from academic research in crime hotspots to
enhance findings. However, researchers have stated that the distribution of
criminal activities on the across the landscape of the city show uneven
occurrence with concentration evident in certain areas or hotspots. The small
regions account for more than half of the crimes in Boston. With such
information, it is possible for the development of region-specific
interventions in the control of gang violence since it provides an insight into the crime-control outcome. The proceedings
are favored by the Jersey City mapping applications that enhanced a randomized
experimental evaluation as part of a place-focused strategy of drug
enforcement. According to Fleisher (2012), the approach has also been utilized
by the Minneapolis Hot Spot Patrol Experiment, where the police officers were
concentrated in marked locations in an attempt
to reduce the crime such areas.

The idea of geographical mapping and its
statistical tools in identifying crime hotspot location and generation of
valuable information on temporal variations, and victim and offender
characterization has been improved in the law enforcement databases. Previous geographical
analyses on offense locations in organized streets showed evidence of the frequency of activity that helped in
recognizing hotspots by tracing the addresses of the highest service calls. The
appropriateness of the traditional methods was
useful in certain interventions yet limited in the definition of the hotspot
areas since a single address can be located inside or outside a densely
populated crime area. Using the address-level analyses, the sensitivity to
coding errors and slght movements of offenders pose a challenge to the
identification of the specific points the crimes were committed. Such a move
suggests the reasons for the development of sophisticated methods of data
analysis by crime analysts and researchers (Kindt, 2009). The automated mapping
techniques have replaced the traditional methods in the past two decades that
help in dealing with the increased amount
of data in distinguishing crime events.

Through the data-driven mechanism of
identifying mechanism of hotspots can range from crime thematic mapping to
complex pattern analyses. Thematic or real crime analysis entails the density
of the criminal events within the arbitrary boundaries, like census tracts and
police reporting areas in which the policymakers can distinguish between target
and disproportionate crime areas for selective intervention. However, the area
maps are likely to encounter problems in the interpretation of the crime areas,
like aggregation biases. For crimes within a high arbitrary areal unit, the
concentration can be enhanced through the examination of a small area, like
Boston street blocks (Knlein, 2009). The areas with dense populations can be
divided along boundary lines reducing the magnitude of the crime problems in
the affected area. Such limitations can provoke inaccurate interventions that
can be applied in the entire community even when the reality of the situation
is presents something different. Conversely, in such limits of interpretations,
the hotspots are likely to be diluted or entirely missed in the investigation.

Due to the challenges in the development
of appropriate interventional methods in addition to the identification of the
hotspot crime areas, the spatial and temporal analysis of crime (STAC) software
package were developed (Barker, 2014). In the application of the software, the
STAC program provides an efficient way of summarizing the point data within the
artificial boundaries through complex algorithms. The resulting outcomes of
crime intervention strategies through hotspot identification have been
suggested as place-focused. Such a move shows the significance of
region-specific approaches in literature and practice of crime-control and
prevention in Boston. According to Akiyama
(2003), the concentration of crime, especially youth crime is likely to be
focused on specific places because of
randomized and temporal fluctuation. The mechanism has improved the
participation of Boston police department in the control of crime since they
understand the aim of the problem-solving interventions. In such a way, the
police force will require specific, reasonable and achievable objectives in how
to handle the situation of Boston gangs. The logic will create some sense in
the reducing crime events only if the problem-solving strategies are focused on
particular areas under investigation. Besides, the problem-solving techniques
should have different theoretical frameworks to enhance the impact of the
intervention, like reducing the misbehavior of the youths in hotspot areas.
Furthermore, the analysis of the hotspot areas, like mapping provides a
significant input in designing and implementing the region-specific strategies
despite lack of logical reasons behind the address of the crime concentrated

According to Trump (2010), no logical reason
explains why mapping applications should be narrowed down to geographical
phenomena, hotspot analysis or region-specific intervention strategies, like most cities have problems dealing with
delinquent groups of gangs. The crimes and disorder activities from youths are
characteristic of geographic areas, which can be identified through mapping.
However, the analyses indicate on the violent youth groups or their conflicting
networks that can be used in the assessment of the hotspots across the city. In
such a deliberation, the identification of the Boston gangs and proper
understanding of the nature of their conflicts that can be utilized in the
prevention and response to cases of violence should be considered. The
implementation of interventions directed towards serious offenders, conflict
patterns, violent groups, and weapons are promising and can help in the
reduction of violence in hotspot areas. The utilization of the criminal network
maps and analyses are useful in the application of mapping technology towards a
problem-solving technique.

The criminal networks in Boston can range
from local youth gangs to narcotic organizations and terror groups, which
represent significant challenges to local, state and federal law enforcement
agencies. Besides, the rapid development in technology has enhanced the
establishment of different tools of crime analysis, like template matching,
event flow charts, telephone links, and Anacapa charting systems among others.
Such tools have illustrated effective ways of examining criminal organizations
that are useful in combating crimes with respect to some other traditional
mechanisms. Besides, the modern art of criminal activities is relatively
unsophisticated that creates the need for the improvement of criminal
intelligence. For example, the structural and computerized network analysis
programs have been used in the detection of vulnerable in crime-concentrated
regions and networks (Maxson, 2011). Other possibilities may include the use of
mapping techniques in monitoring the parolees, probationers, sex offenders and
victims, and victim locations. The police agencies have the demonstrated the
use of mapping software in solving specific hitches, like rape and murder but
rarely show competence in tracking potential and constantly existing problems.
Through mapping, technological support can be developed to help in the
development of problem-solving techniques when needed.

Conclusion Policy Implications

With illustrations from the Boston Gun Project,
researchers have explored different ways of capturing the experiential assets
and incorporating them in the design and implementation of the problem-solving
techniques. The Boston project aimed at preventing the youth from participating
in violent activities in the region. For example, an interagency working group,
performance of original research on youth violence, crafting a city-wide problem-solving
strategy and evaluation of the impact of the strategies to realize success (McGarrell,
1995). The key participants in the project included officers from Boston Police
Department, probation officers and street workers with an objective of
preventing and mediating on gang disputes.

Similarly, Boston seems to have a slight problem of homicide associated with
gang-associated youths, which is evident from the existing police records. In
response, the Homicide Bureau of the Boston Police department has had thoroughly investigated the matter to avoid
being used in a trial for domestic,
gang-related, and drug-related among other homicide reports (Zhang, 2011). Such
a provision indicates that the contribution of youth gangs to homicide cases in
Boston is negligible as supported by documentary reports. In the estimation of
the gangster groups in the city, the street workers have demonstrated a higher
estimate compared to the police officers and probation who are directly
involved in the restoration of security in the neighborhood. According to Cyr and Decker (2003), the geographical territory
map suggests that more than 60 gangs are present or operate in Boston with the
youths being the predominant members. The nature of the gang network in Boston
has made it challenging in the development of the region-specific interventions
to reduce victimization of the youths and enhance security in the area. Various
theoretical models have also been used in the identification of the subgroups
of the criminal networks, like the ‘n-clan’ technique.

Overall, the contribution of the Boston’s
youth in gangs has been identified as a serious problem that requires
region-specific attention to address the situation. The street workers, police
officers, and probation officers have
illustrated how the population of the criminal
offenders can be identified in the community, with more 60 criminal groups
operating in Boston. In the article, the development of place-focused
problem-solving approaches has been given a priority in managing the situation
to restore the events of public insecurity and violence in the city.














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